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Table 2 Unadjusted associations of traditional and HIV-related risk factors with urine biomarker levels among HIV-positive participants

From: Kidney disease risk factors associate with urine biomarkers concentrations in HIV-positive persons; a cross-sectional study

  α1m β2-m IL-18 KIM-1 TFF3 Clusterin NGAL MCP-1 EGF UMOD ACR CysC OPN YKL-40
Risk Factors % Estimate (95% CI) % Estimate (95% CI) % Estimate (95% CI) % Estimate (95% CI) % Estimate (95% CI) % Estimate (95% CI) % Estimate (95% CI) % Estimate (95% CI) % Estimate (95% CI) % Estimate (95% CI) % Estimate (95% CI) % Estimate (95% CI) % Estimate (95% CI) % Estimate (95% CI)
Age (per decade) 36 (21, 52) 11 (−10, 37) 10 (−1, 22) 42 (27, 58) 9 (−15, 39) 30 (16, 47) 21 (4, 40) 26 (16, 35) −14 (−19, −7) −21 (−30, − 11) 23 (6, 42) 3 (−4, 11) 5 (−4, 15) 18 (2, 37)
Black Race 16 (−10, 49) 131 (39, 284) 31 (3, 68) − 25 (−44, 0.7) 170 (60, 358) − 7 (− 33, 28) 102 (44, 181) 9 (− 12, 36) − 25 (− 37, − 10.8) −8 (− 34, 29) 37 (−0.6, 90) 3 (− 14, 23) −9 (− 25, 10) 61 (15, 124)
Current smoking 106 (61, 164) 57 (− 4, 156) 38 (9, 75) 5 (− 19, 35) 59 (− 7, 17) 50 (11, 102) 29 (− 11, 86) 8 (−13, 35) −4 (− 19, 14) −2 (− 26, 30) 39 (− 4, 101) 18 (0.13, 39) −12 (− 28, 9) 4 (−26, 47)
Diabetes 29 (− 1, 68) −54 (− 76, − 10) 38 (8, 76) 27 (− 2, 65) −28 (−64, 44) 28 (−6, 75) 52 (1.6, 126) 16 (− 8, 47) −20 (− 34, − 3) − 33 (− 49, − 11) 39 (− 9, 114) − 14 (− 31, 8) 6 (− 15, 32) 3 (− 34, 61)
Hypertension 20 (−2, 47) 5 (−31, 59) 6 (− 14, 30) 14 (− 8, 42) 16 (− 26, 83) 11 (− 13, 43) 4 (−23, 41) 3 (− 14, 23) −24 (− 34, − 13) 4 (− 17, 31) 56 (16, 111) −2 (− 14, 11) − 4 (− 19, 14) 21 (− 11, 65)
HCV-seropositive 62 (25, 111) 107 (25, 245) 56 (17, 107) 29 (−4.0, 72) 139 (27, 351) 33 (−4.0, 84) 34 (− 6, 90) 3 (− 21, 35) −21 (− 36, − 49) −8 (− 30, 22) −28 (− 64, 44) 12.5 (− 7, 36) −4 (− 299, 29) 39 (− 1.6, 97)
HIV RNA (per 10-fold higher) 4 (− 4, 11) 26 (9, 45) 18 (10, 27) 4 (−5, 13) 6 (−10, 23) − 4 (− 13, 6) 0.7 (− 9, 12) 3 (− 4, 9) − 0.7 (− 5, 49) 6 (− 2, 15) 7 (−3, 19) 6 (2, 11) − 0.8 (− 7, 6) 9 (− 2, 21)
CD4+ count (per (doubling) −12 (− 22, − 1) −35 (− 49, − 18) − 21 (− 30, − 11) −7 (− 17, 4) −3 (− 26, 29) −0.4 (− 15, 16) 2 (−16, 24) − 15 (− 24, − 5) 2 (− 5, 10) −2 (− 14, 12) −11.0 (− 24, 4) − 9 (−17, −1) 0.9 (− 9, 12) −15 (− 30, 1.4)
  1. Estimates from linear regression models adjusted for urine creatinine. α1m α1-microglobulin, β2m β2-microglobulin, IL-18 interleukin 18, KIM-1 kidney injury marker-1, TFF3 trefoil factor 3, NGAL neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, MCP-1 monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, EGF epidermal growth factor, UMOD uromodulin, ACR albumin-to-creatinine ratio, CysC cystatin C, OPN osteopontin, YKL-40 chitinase-3-like protein-1