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Table 3 Factors associated with the index hyperkalemic event

From: Epidemiology and health outcomes associated with hyperkalemia in a primary care setting in England

  Odds ratio (95% CI)
Unadjusted Stepwise adjusted
Age range, years
 18–29 REF REF
 30–39 1.07 (1.04–1.10) 0.86 (0.83–0.89)
 40–49 1.15 (1.12–1.19) 0.68 (0.66–0.71)
 50–59 1.41 (1.37–1.45) 0.68 (0.66–0.70)
 60–69 1.60 (1.56–1.65) 0.67 (0.65–0.69)
 70–79 1.76 (1.72–1.81) 0.60 (0.58–0.62)
  ≥ 80 1.77 (1.73–1.83) 0.62 (0.59–0.64)
Sex
 Male REF REF
 Female 0.89 (0.88–0.90) 1.08 (1.07–1.10)
Presence of measured baseline laboratory values   
 BUN 1.12 (1.05–1.19) 0.70 (0.66–0.75)
 eGFR 31.49 (30.51–32.52) 29.81 (28.84–30.80)
Smoking status
 Current 1.05 (1.04–1.15) 1.17 (1.15–1.18)
 Former 1.40 (1.39–1.26) 1.26 (1.24–1.27)
 Never REF REF
 Unknown 0.72 (0.66–1.28) 1.32 (1.20–1.44)
Comorbidity
 Hypertension 2.29 (2.27–2.32) 0.88 (0.87–0.90)
 Hyperlipidemia 1.42 (1.41–1.44) 0.85 (0.84–0.87)
 Ischemic heart disease 1.63 (1.61–1.66) 0.85 (0.83–0.87)
 Arrhythmia (including atrial fibrillation) 1.33 (1.31–1.36) 0.91 (0.89–0.93)
 Heart failure 1.94 (1.87–2.02) 0.89 (0.84–0.94)
 Cerebrovascular disease 1.31 (1.29–1.34) 0.93 (0.91–0.96)
 Peripheral artery disease 1.71 (1.64–1.78) 1.13 (1.08–1.19)
 Diabetes (types 1 and 2) 1.97 (1.94–2.01) 0.95 (0.93–0.97)
 Chronic kidney disease 1.69 (1.67–1.71) 1.04 (1.02–1.06)
 Obstructive lung disease 0.92 (0.91–0.93) 0.95 (0.93–0.96)
 Liver disease 1.13 (1.10–1.17) 0.93 (0.90–0.96)
Concomitant medication
 ACE inhibitor 15.11 (14.80–15.43) 13.63 (13.31–13.95)
 ARB 14.56 (14.05–15.09) 15.89 (15.27–16.54)
 MRA 17.47 (16.17–18.88) 7.77 (7.06–8.54)
 Antibiotics 0.32 (0.31–0.33) 0.33 (0.32–0.34)
 Loop diuretics 2.79 (2.72–2.86) 1.39 (1.34–1.44)
 Thiazide diuretics
  Bendroflumethiazide 1.86 (1.82–1.90) 0.85 (0.83–0.88)
  Indapamide 1.45 (1.36–1.54) 0.57 (0.52–0.62)
  Hydrochlorothiazide 2.46 (2.26–2.67) 0.83 (0.75–0.93)
  1. ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, BUN blood urea nitrogen, CI confidence interval, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, MRA mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, REF reference value