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Table 4 Multiple regression analysis

From: Correction to: Outcome of kidney function after ischaemic and zero-ischaemic laparoscopic and open nephron-sparing surgery for renal cell cancer

a (model 1) Regression
coefficient
β
Multiple linear regression
95% CI
p-value
Baseline eGFR (mL/ml/1.73 m22) - 0.20 - 0.38 - − 0.02 0.03
Baseline Haemoglobin (mg/dL) 0.51 - 0.86 - 1.89 0.46
Tumour diameter (cm) 0.67 - 0.43 - 1.76 0.24
Tumour locus central (ref.) vs. peripheral 0.43 - 3.80 - 4.67 0.84
Surgical approach LNSS (ref.) vs. ONSS - 13.48 - 17.65 - − 9.32 < 0.001
Sex male (ref.) vs. female - 3.28 - 7.80 - 1.25 0.16
Age (years) - 0.17 - 0.36 - 0.01 0.06
BMI (kg/m2) - 0.88 - 1.36 - − 0.41 < 0.001
Hypertension no (ref.) vs. yes - 0.78 - 4.75 - 3.18 0.70
Ischaemia time (min) - 0.27 - 0.41 - − 0.13 < 0.001
Operative time (min) - 0.06 - 0.09 - − 0.03 < 0.001
Preoperative ureter stenting no (ref.) vs. yes - 0.46 - 5.64 - 4.71 0.86
Intraoperative blood transfusions no (ref.) vs. yes - 3.29 - 11.91 - 5.33 0.45
Postoperative complications no (ref.) vs. yes - 3.36 - 8.42 - 1.70 0.19
Clavien-Dindo score < 3 (ref.) vs. ≥ 3 - 10.98 - 18.47 - − 3.48 0.004
b (model 2) Regression
coefficient
β
Multiple linear regression
95% CI
p-value
Baseline eGFR (mL/ml/1.73 m22) - 0.29 - 0.49 - − 0.09 0.005
Baseline Haemoglobin (mg/dL) - 0.32 - 1.95 - 1.31 0.70
Relative change of eGFR from baseline at time A (%) 0.18 0.03 - 0.33 0.02
AKI 48 h p.o. no (ref.) vs. yes - 2.11 - 9.01 - 4.79 0.55
Tumour diameter (cm) - 1.76 - 2.87 - − 0.66 0.002
Tumour locus central (ref.) vs. peripheral - 0.30 - 5.14 - 4.54 0.90
Surgical approach LNSS (ref.) vs. ONSS 1.13 - 4.17 - − 6.44 0.67
Sex male (ref.) vs. female 1.63 - 3.43 - 6.70 0.53
Age (years) - 0.10 - 0.33 - 0.13 0.40
BMI (kg/m2) 0.15 - 0.39 - 0.70 0.58
Hypertension no (ref.) vs. yes - 2.11 - 6.82 - 2.60 0.38
Ischaemia time (min) 0.03 - 0.14 - 0.21 0.72
Operative time (min) 0.01 - 0.03 - 0.05 0.54
Preoperative ureter stenting no (ref.) vs. yes - 4.35 - 10.46 - 1.77 0.16
Intraoperative blood transfusions no (ref.) vs. yes 4.12 - 6.29 - 14.52 0.44
Postoperative complications no (ref.) vs. yes 1.20 - 4.77 - 7.18 0.69
Clavien-Dindo score < 3 (ref.) vs. ≥ 3 4.43 - 4.28 - 13.14 0.32
c (model 3) OR Multiple logistic regression
95% CI
p-value
Baseline eGFR (mL/ml/1.73 m22) 0.99 0.96 - 1.01 0.30
Baseline Haemoglobin (mg/dl) 0.85 0.70 - 1.03 0.10
Tumour diameter (cm) 0.94 0.81 - 1.08 0.35
Tumour locus central (ref.) vs. peripheral 1.20 0.70 - 2.05 0.51
Surgical approach LNSS (ref.) vs. ONSS 3.87 2.17 - 6.92 < 0.001
Sex male (ref.) vs. female 2.51 1.35 - 4.67 0.004
Age (years) 1.01 0.99 - 1.04 0.26
BMI (kg/m2) 1.13 1.06 - 1.21 < 0.001
Hypertension no (ref.) vs. yes 1.05 0.63 - 1.74 0.85
Ischaemia time (min) 1.02 1.00 - 1.04 0.046
Operative time (min) 1.01 1.00 - 1.01 0.002
Preoperative ureter stenting no (ref.) vs. yes 0.92 0.46 - 1.83 0.81
Intraoperative blood transfusions no (ref.) vs. yes 0.73 0.22 - 2.45 0.61
Postoperative complications no (ref.) vs. yes 1.79 0.92 - 3.48 0.08
Clavien-Dindo score < 3 (ref.) vs. ≥ 3 2.14 0.68 - 6.72 0.19
d (model 4) OR Multiple logistic regression
95% CI
p-value
Baseline eGFR (mL/ml/1.73 m2) 0.89 0.85 - 0.92 < 0.001
Baseline Haemoglobin (mg/dL) 0.99 0.73 - 1.35 0.95
Relative change of eGFR from baseline at time A (%) 0.98 0.98 - 1.01 0.12
AKI 48 h p.o. no (ref.) vs. yes 1.23 0.39 - 3.85 0.72
Tumour diameter (cm) 0.93 0.71 - 1.21 0.58
Tumour locus central (ref.) vs. peripheral 1.35 0.56 - 3.15 0.49
Surgical approach LNSS (ref.) vs. ONSS 1.69 0.67 - 4.24 0.26
Sex male (ref.) vs. female 0.63 0.24 - 1.67 0.35
Age (years) 0.99 0.95 - 1.04 0.75
BMI (kg/m2) 0.97 0.87 - 1.07 0.50
Hypertension no (ref.) vs. yes 1.62 0.66 - 4.00 0.29
Ischaemia time (min) 1.01 0.98 - 1.04 0.55
Operative time (min) 1.00 0.99 - 1.01 0.86
Preoperative ureter stenting no (ref.) vs. yes 1.26 0.41 - 3.86 0.68
Intraoperative blood transfusions no (ref.) vs. yes 0.95 0.08 - 11.05 0.97
Postoperative complications no (ref.) vs. yes 0.67 0.22 - 2.00 0.47
Clavien-Dindo score < 3 (ref.) vs. ≥ 3 1.37 0.22 - 8.41 0.73
  1. Multiple linear regression analysis for models 1 and 2 including ischaemia time as a continuous variable investigating predictors of the relative change (%) of eGFR from baseline at (a) measurement time A (median, 1 day p.o.; IQR, 1–2) and at (b) at measurement time D (median, 13 months p.o.; IQR 12–15), and multiple logistic regression analysis for models 3 and 4 including ischaemia time as a continuous variable investigating (c) predictors for the development of postoperative AKI within 48 h p.o. and (d) predictors for the development of postoperative new-onset CKD stage ≥ 3 (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) within measurement time D
  2. The regression models are based on pooled estimates from 100 imputed datasets. A p-value < 0.05 is regarded as statistically significant
  3. eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, CKD chronic kidney disease, AKI acute kidney injury, LNSS laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery, ONSS open nephron-sparing surgery, BMI body mass index, OR odds ratio