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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of subjects stratified by serum klotho level

From: Serum klotho is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in chronic kidney disease: results from the KNOW-CKD study

  Klotho groups P–value
Lower than median (n = 877) (99–526 pg/mL) Equal to or higher than median (n = 877) (527–2909 pg/mL)
Age (years) 55.3 ± 11.9 54.5 ± 12.3 0.152
Sex, male, n (%) 556 (63.4) 554 (63.2) 0.921
SBP (mmHg) 128.9 ± 16.7 128.2 ± 17.2 0.387
DBP (mmHg) 76.3 ± 11.5 76.0 ± 10.9 0.568
BMI (kg/m2) 24.9 ± 3.4 24.6 ± 3.4 0.060
Waist circumference (cm) 88.4 ± 9.8 87.8 ± 9.8 0.203
DM, n (%) 348 (39.7) 352(40.1) 0.845
Hypertension, n (%) 866 (98.7) 853 (97.3) 0.026
Preexisting CV disease, n (%) 144 (16.4) 154 (17.6) 0.525
 CAD, n (%) 46 (5.2) 64 (7.3) 0.076
 PVD, n (%) 40 (4.6) 36 (4.1) 0.639
 Cerebrovascular disease, n (%) 50 (5.7) 60 (6.8) 0.325
 HF, n (%) 11 (1.3) 17 (1.9) 0.253
 Arrhythmia, n (%) 23 (2.6) 29 (3.3) 0.398
Cause of CKD, n (%) 0.012
 GN, n (%) 358 (40.8) 388 (44.2)  
 Diabetic nephropathy, n (%) 253 (28.8) 238 (27.1)  
 Hypertension, n (%) 214 (24.4) 175 (20.0)  
 Others, n (%) 52 (5.9) 73 (8.7)  
Laboratory findings
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73m2) 44.9 ± 26.0 53.6 ± 30.6 < 0.001
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 12.5 ± 2.0 13.0 ± 2.1 < 0.001
 Albumin (g/dL) 4.1 ± 0.4 4.1 ± 0.5 0.953
 Uric acid (mg/dL) 7.5 ± 1.9 7.0 ± 1.9 < 0.001
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 2.0 ± 1.2 1.8 ± 1.1 < 0.001
 hsCRP, median, (IQR) (mg/dL) 0.07 (0.03, 0.18) 0.06 (0.02, 0.15) 0.005
 Fasting blood sugar (mg/dL) 110.9 ± 34.9 117.0 ± 49.1 0.003
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 172.8 ± 39.7 174.0 ± 41.0 0.531
 Triglyceride (mg/dL) 168.6 ± 107.0 159.7 ± 98.9 0.072
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 95.0 ± 32.3 97.0 ± 33.1 0.205
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 47.9 ± 15.9 48.6 ± 15.1 0.356
 Overt proteinuriaa, n (%) 475 (61.3) 467 (60.7) 0.821
 Klotho, median, (IQR) (pg/mL) 418 (337, 475) 656 (583, 774) < 0.001
Medication, n (%)
 ACEi or ARB, n (%) 773 (88.2) 748 (85.5) 0.088
 Diuretics, n (%) 342 (39.0) 295 (33.6) 0.058
 Statin, n (%) 514 (58.6) 484 (55.2) 0.309
 Ca-based P binders, n (%) 88 (10.0) 73 (8.3) 0.396
Metabolic syndrome, n (%) 574 (65.5) 544 (62.0) 0.136
  1. a24-hour urine protein > 500 mg/day
  2. MS metabolic syndrome, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, BMI body mass index, DM diabetes mellitus, CV cardiovascular, CAD coronary artery disease, HF heart failure, PVD peripheral vascular disease, CKD chronic kidney disease, GN glomerulonephritis, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate by CKD-EPI creatinine equation, hsCRP high sensitivity C-reactive protein, IQR interquartile range, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HDL high-density lipoprotein, ACEi angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, Ca calcium, P phosphorus