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Table 3 Comparison between the C4d-positive and C4d-negative groups

From: Clinical significance of C4d deposition in renal tissues from patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome—a preliminary study

Items TI-C4d+ (n = 16) TI-C4d (n = 23) P
Age (years, M ± SD) 41 ± 12.6 42 ± 15.4 NS
SS duration (years, M ± SD) 9.9 ± 9.17 8.4 ± 9.91 NS
Renal duration (years, IQR) 4.0 [2.0, 9.3] 0.9 [0.1, 2.0] 0.001
ANA positive 16/16 21/23 NS
 ANA 1:1280 5/16 3/23 NS
Anti-SSA (+) 13/16 21/23 NS
Anti-SSB (+) 6/16 7/23 NS
Serum IgG elevation 11/15 14/23 NS
Serum IgA elevation 8/15 6/23 NS
Serum IgM elevation 3/15 1/23 NS
Hypocomplementemia Low CH50 2/16 1/22 NS
 Low C3 4/16 2/22 NS
 Low C4 3/15 3/20 NS
CRP elevation 3/13 0/19 0.058
Scr (μmol/L, IQR) 132.5 [89.7, 165.5] 83.0 [70.7, 102.0] 0.008
eGFR (mL/min.1.73 m2, M ± SD) 58.7 ± 27.31 78.3 ± 24.65 0.025
24-h urine collection (g/day, M ± SD) 1.9 ± 2.09 2.5 ± 4.48 NS
Glomerular sclerosis (%, IQR) 19.1 [0, 49.6] 4.2 [1.9, 6.3] 0.051
Interstitial fibrosis (M ± SD) 2.3 ± 1.29 1.4 ± 1.04 0.035
  1. Tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis were scored according to the percentage of interstitial area involved: 0 (absent), 1 (≤25%), 2 (25–50%), 3 (50–75%), and 4 (> 75%)
  2. NS not significant, TI-C4d tubulointerstitial C4d, SS Sjögren’s syndrome, ANA anti-nuclear antibodies, CRP C reactive protein, Scr serum creatinine, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate (calculated with CKD-EPI creatinine equation), M ± SD mean ± standard deviation, IQR interquartile range