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Table 4 Baseline characteristics of the MRA population by disease cohort

From: Patient characteristics and initiation of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in patients with chronic kidney disease in routine clinical practice in the US: a retrospective cohort study

Variable MRA cohort
CKD DKD CKD + HF DKD + HF
(n = 1574) (n = 1574) (n = 1004) (n = 1747)
Age, years
 Mean (SD) 56.1 (13.0) 59.0 (10.6) 62.7 (13.5) 63.5 (10.7)
 Median 57.0 60.0 61.0 63.0
 Range 19 to 83 22 to 83 22 to 83 28 to 83
Men, n (%) 747 (47.5) 925 (58.8) 671 (66.8) 1113 (63.7)
Physician specialty, n (%)
 Primary care physician 207 (13.2) 166 (10.5) 106 (10.6) 173 (9.9)
 Internal medicine 258 (16.4) 280 (17.8) 163 (16.2) 310 (17.7)
 Cardiology 48 (3.0) 37 (2.4) 94 (9.4) 128 (7.3)
 Nephrology 602 (38.2) 666 (42.3) 210 (20.9) 430 (24.6)
 Hospital 176 (11.2) 152 (9.7) 190 (18.9) 295 (16.9)
 Other 241 (15.3) 235 (14.9) 211 (21.0) 370 (21.2)
 Unknown 42 (2.7) 38 (2.4) 30 (3.0) 41 (2.3)
Medications, n (%)
 Angiotensin II receptor blockers 539 (34.2) 704 (44.7) 258 (25.7) 573 (32.8)
 ACE inhibitors 609 (38.7) 817 (51.9) 460 (45.8) 924 (52.9)
 Renin inhibitors 46 (2.9) 55 (3.5) 13 (1.3) 50 (2.9)
 Β-blockers 735 (46.7) 993 (63.1) 710 (70.7) 1366 (78.2)
 Calcium-channel blockers 722 (45.9) 817 (51.9) 321 (32.0) 766 (43.8)
 Vasodilators 395 (25.1) 529 (33.6) 351 (35.0) 789 (45.2)
 Diuretics 778 (49.4) 953 (60.5) 694 (69.1) 1390 (79.6)
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Hypertension 1391 (88.4) 1516 (96.3) 949 (94.5) 1696 (97.1)
 CVD 275 (17.5) 412 (26.2) 641 (63.8) 1145 (65.5)
 IHD 245 (15.6) 388 (24.7) 595 (59.3) 1212 (69.4)
 LVH 106 (6.7) 156 (9.9) 390 (38.8) 668 (38.2)
 Anemia 518 (32.9) 576 (36.6) 436 (43.4) 941 (53.9)
 Hyperkalemia 95 (6.0) 109 (6.9) 75 (7.5) 216 (12.4)
Healthcare costs, $
 Mean 31,380 32,761 77,274 84,733
 95% CI 28,275 to 34,485 29,995 to 35,527 69,997 to 84,551 79,324 to 90,141
 SD 62,801 55,954 117,501 115,256
 Median 11,944 16,185 38,447 48,117
  1. ACE acetylcholinesterase, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, CKD chronic kidney disease, DKD diabetic kidney disease, HF heart failure, LVH left ventricular hypertrophy, m months, MRA mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist