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Table 1 Clinical variables of the 120 patients with low or high arterial stiffness

From: Serum osteoprotegerin is an independent marker of central arterial stiffness as assessed using carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity in hemodialysis patients: a cross sectional study

Characteristics All Patients
(n = 120)
Low Arterial Stiffness
Group (n = 67)
High Arterial Stiffness Group (n = 53) p value
Demographics
 Age (years) 63.3 ± 13.7 61.7 ± 14.1 65.4 ± 13.2 0.144
 Female gender 60 (50.0) 35 (52.2) 25 (47.2) 0.851
 HD duration (years) 4.7 (2.0–9.8) 5.8 (1.8–11.1) 4.6 (2.3–7.1) 0.434
Examination
 Height (cm) 159.6 ± 8.5 158.9 ± 8.9 160.6 ± 8.0 0.290
 Body weight (kg) 61.5 ± 14.6 63.3 ± 16.3 65.5 ± 13.8 0.444
 BMI (kg/m2) 25.1 ± 5.0 24.9 ± 5.4 25.3 ± 4.5 0.681
 SBP (mmHg) 142.2 ± 25.2 137.9 ± 26.3 147.5 ± 22.8 0.038*
 DBP (mmHg) 76.8 ± 16.6 76.2 ± 15.5 77.5 ± 18.0 0.669
 cfPWV (m/s) 9.30 (7.63–12.37) 7.80 (7.10–8.80) 12.6 (11.40–15.25) < 0.001*
Laboratory data
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 144.2 ± 32.3 145.0 ± 35.8 143.2 ± 27.6 0.582
 Glucose (mg/dL) 131.5 (110.3–172.8) 129.0 (110.0–163.0) 134.0 (110.5–185.0) 0.235
 BUN (mg/dL) 61.9 ± 14.5 61.9 ± 13.1 61.9 ± 16.2 0.978
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 9.2 ± 2.0 9.3 ± 2.0 9.0 ± 2.0 0.397
 Corrected calcium (mg/dL) 8.8 ± 0.6 8.6 ± 0.7 9.0 ± 0.8 0.007*
 Phosphorus (mg/dL) 4.8 ± 1.2 4.8 ± 1.3 4.9 ± 1.2 0.573
 C-reactive protein (mg/dL) 0.31 (0.08–0.89) 0.30 (0.08–1.01) 0.34 (0.09–0.74) 0.830
 Intact PTH (pg/mL) 190.0 (58.5–355.3) 239.3 (114.4–372.5) 141.1 (44.4–339.9) 0.066
 OPG (pg/L) 286.2 (209.0–343.6) 247.9 (187.8–332.2) 316.3 (246.2–413.3) < 0.001*
 Kt/V (Gotch) 1.34 ± 0.17 1.35 ± 0.18 1.34 ± 0.16 0.717
Comorbid conditions
 Diabetes mellitus, s (%) 56 (46.7) 22 (32.8) 33 (64.2) 0.001*
 Hypertension, n (%) 60 (50.0) 29 (43.3) 31 (58.5) 0.098
 CAD, n (%) 78 (65.0) 39 (58.2) 39 (73.6) 0.079
Medications
 ACEIs or ARBs, n (%) 41 (34.2) 21 (31.3) 20 (37.7) 0.463
 β-Blockers, n (%) 33 (20.6) 19 (28.4) 14 (26.4) 0.813
 CCBs, n (%) 44 (27.5) 27 (40.3) 17 (32.1) 0.353
 Statins, n (%) 17 (14.2) 7 (10.4) 10 (18.9) 0.189
  1. Values for continuous variables are shown as mean ± standard deviation and analyzed by Student’s t-test; variables not normally distributed are shown as median and interquartile range and analyzed by the Mann–Whitney U test; values for categorical variables are presented as number (%) and analyzed by the chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test
  2. HD hemodialysis, BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, cfPWV carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity, BUN blood urea nitrogen, PTH parathyroid hormone, OPG osteoprotegerin, Kt/V fractional clearance index for urea, CAD coronary artery disease, ACEIs angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ARBs angiotensin receptor blockers, CCBs calcium channel blockers
  3. *p < 0.05 is considered as statistically significant