Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline clinical data and outcomes

From: Impact of blood glucose levels on the accuracy of urinary N-acety-β-D-glucosaminidase for acute kidney injury detection in critically ill adults: a multicenter, prospective, observational study

Characteristics Non-AKI (n = 1025) AKI (n = 412) P value
Demographic variables
 Age, years 52.0 (41.0–62.0) 59.0 (45.0–71.0) < 0.001
 Male sex, n (%) 521 (50.8) 247 (60.0) 0.032
 BMI, kg/m2 22.2 (21.5–23.1) 22.4 (21.5–23.4) 0.223
Preexisting clinical conditions
 Hypertension, n (%) 169 (16.5) 137 (33.3) < 0.001
 DM, n (%) 117 (11.4) 108 (26.2) < 0.001
 CKD, n (%) 16 (1.6) 46 (11.2) < 0.001
Sepsis, n (%) 157 (15.3) 204 (49.5) < 0.001
Previous antidiabetic drugs, n (%)
 α-glucosidase inhibitors, n (%) 12 (1.2) 6 (1.5) 0.662
 Insulin secretagogues, n (%) 10 (1.0) 11 (2.7) 0.016
 Thiazolidinediones, n (%) 1 (0.1) 3 (0.7) 0.041
 Metformin, n (%) 15 (1.5) 14 (3.4) 0.431
 Insulin, n (%) 7 (0.7) 12 (2.9) 0.235
Admission type, n (%) < 0.001
 Elective surgical, n (%) 798 (77.9) 194 (47.1)  
 Emergency surgical, n (%) 94 (9.2) 67 (16.3)  
 Medical, n (%) 133 (13.0) 151 (36.7)  
Baseline serum creatinine, mg/dl 0.69 (0.59–0.83) 0.71 (0.56–0.93) 0.145
Baseline eGFR, ml/minute/1.73 m2 110.62 (95.27–132.95) 109.50 (83.36–139.68) 0.146
Serum creatinine at admission, mg/dl 0.77 (0.64–0.92) 1.04 (0.80–1.33) < 0.001
uNAG at admission, U/g Cr 22.55 (13.26–37.75) 35.46 (21.26–60.96) < 0.001
Serum glucose at admission, mg/dl 120.24 (102.74–146.25) 143.19 (117.90–180.45) < 0.001
HbA1c at admission, % 5.60 (5.30–6.00) 5.80 (5.40–6.30) < 0.001
APACHE II score 10 (8–14) 16 (10–23) < 0.001
UP, ml/kg/h 2.05 (1.57–2.69) 1.86 (1.24–2.62) < 0.001
Outcomes
 Length of ICU stay, days 2 (2–4) 4 (2–9) < 0.001
 Length of hospital stay, days 10 (8–15) 13 (8–21) < 0.001
 RRT during ICU stay, n (%) 3 (0.3) 21 (5.1) < 0.001
 ICU mortality, n (%) 28 (2.7) 51 (12.4) < 0.001
 In-hospital mortality, n (%) 37 (3.6) 57 (13.8) < 0.001
  1. AKI acute kidney injury, BMI body mass index, DM diabetes mellitus, CKD chronic kidney disease, defined as baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate, uNAG urinary N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, the values of uNAG were normalized to urinary creatinine concentration, Cr creatinine concentration, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score, UP urine production first 24 h after admission, ICU intensive care unit, RRT renal replacement therapy. P value for global comparisons among groups by Kruskal-Wallis and chi-square tests for continuous and categorical variables, respectively