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Table 4 Characteristics Associated with High Cost Hospitalizations from Cardiovascular Disease after Kidney Transplantation

From: Factors associated with adverse outcomes from cardiovascular events in the kidney transplant population: an analysis of national discharge data, hospital characteristics, and process measures

Variable Comparison Model 1: Transplant Hospital Only Model 2: Transplant Hospital + Patient Characteristics Model 3: Transplant Hospital + Patient Characteristics + Hospital Characteristics
OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value
Transplant hospital Transplant vs. Non-transplant 1.26 1.04 1.53 0.02 1.46 1.16 1.85 0.002 0.66 0.47 0.94 0.02
Patient-level Characteristics
 Age ≥60 vs. < 60      1.17 0.98 1.40 0.08 1.30 1.05 1.61 0.02
 Race Non-white vs. White      0.89 0.74 1.08 0.25 0.87 0.70 1.10 0.25
 Sex Female vs. Male      0.95 0.80 1.13 0.57 1.05 0.86 1.30 0.62
Type of admission Emergent/Urgent vs. Elective/Others      0.55 0.43 0.69 < 0.001 0.54 0.40 0.72 < 0.001
 Admitted to high transfer in hospital Yes vs. No      0.97 0.75 1.25 0.81 1.07 0.82 1.40 0.61
 Number of CV diagnosis ≥2 vs. 1      1.36 1.16 1.59 < 0.001 1.55 1.25 1.93 < 0.001
 Weighted Charlson score ≥2 vs. 0–1      1.08 0.86 1.35 0.51 1.05 0.80 1.39 0.71
 Hypertension Yes vs. No      0.88 0.69 1.12 0.31 0.76 0.56 1.05 0.09
 Tobacco abuse Yes vs. No      0.65 0.42 1.00 0.05 0.68 0.37 1.27 0.23
 Dyslipidemia Yes vs. No      0.79 0.67 0.94 0.006 0.80 0.64 1.01 0.06
 Diabetes mellitus Yes vs. No      0.89 0.76 1.06 0.18 0.89 0.72 1.10 0.29
Invasive CV procedure
 Diagnostic Cardiac catheterization Yes vs. No      3.65 2.98 4.47 < 0.001 4.51 3.46 5.89 < 0.001
 Therapeutic cardiac catheterization Yes vs. No      3.11 1.79 5.41 < 0.001 3.08 1.57 6.04 0.001
 CABG Yes vs. No      17.91 3.79 84.61 < 0.001 25.48 2.65 244.93 0.005
 Valve surgery Yes vs. No      6.68 1.30 34.31 0.02 13.63 0.66 281.03 0.09
 Other cardiac surgery Yes vs. No      4.06 1.79 9.23 < 0.001 3.88 1.13 13.31 0.03
Hospital-level Characteristics
 Owner, Financial status, Payer Mix
  Hospital total expenses by quartile 2 vs. 1          1.37 0.76 2.49 0.30
3 vs. 1          1.73 0.89 3.38 0.11
4 vs. 1          1.40 0.63 3.13 0.41
  PPO Hospital Yes vs. No          1.34 0.80 2.25 0.27
  % Medicare discharge Per 10% increase          0.69 0.60 0.80 < 0.001
 Inpatient Capacity
  Hospital unit inpatient days by quartile 2 vs. 1          1.15 0.64 2.06 0.65
3 vs. 1          0.91 0.48 1.74 0.77
4 vs. 1          1.03 0.50 2.12 0.93
 Staffing Patterns
  Physician FTE/10 beds Per 1 FTE increase          1.05 1.03 1.07 < 0.001
  Nurse FTE/10 beds Per 1 FTE increase          1.01 1.00 1.03 0.18
 Process of Care for Heart Attack
  Aspirin at arrival Per 5% increase          1.18 0.62 2.24 0.62
  Time to ECG Per 20 min increase          0.99 0.92 1.07 0.85
QIC 6258.81 4193.5 2466.62