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Table 1 Characteristics of RCTs included in the study

From: Efficacy and safety of immunosuppressive treatment in IgA nephropathy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Study Patient Sample size Intervention (treatment) Intervention (control) Follow-up
Ballardie 2002 [10] 18 to 54 years 38(19/19) Prednisolone 40 mg/d (reduced to 10 mg/d by 2 year) + cyclophosphamide 1.5 mg/kg/day (adjusted down to the nearest 50 mg) no immunosuppression 24 M
Cheng 2015 [11] 18–55 years old, hypertension under control, urinary proteins 0.5–3.5 g/24 h, Cr < 265.2 μmol/L 84(42/42) leflunomide 20 mg/d + Valsartan Valsartan 24 M
Cruzado 2011 [12] 18–70 years old, eGFR 30-60 ml/min/1.73m2, proteinuria > 1 g/d; BP > 140/90 mmHg with proteinuria 0.3-1 g/d 23(14/9) SRL 1 mg/d (initial) + enalapril (or ACEI) + atorvastatin (or other statin) Enalapril (or ACEI) + atorvastatin (or other statin) 12 M
Frisch 2005 [13] 18–75 years old, protein> 1 g/d 32(17/15) MMF 1000 mg bid +ACEI/ARB Placebo + ACEI/ARB 12 M
Harmankaya 2002 [14] 13–63 years, mean Ccr 89.2 ± 10.2 ml/min 43(21/22) Prednisolone 40 mg/day + azathioprine 100 mg/day no specific treatment 60 M
Hirai 2017 [15] urinary protein excretion > 0.5 g/day, age > 16 years 42(21/21) MZR 150 mg once daily orally in the morning for 12 months + Standard treatment Standard treatment 36 M
Hogg 2015 [16] 7–70 years old; UPCR > 0.6 g/g (males) or > 0.8 g/g (females); eGFR> 50 mL/min/1.73 m2 (or > 40 mL/min/1.73 m2 in those already receiving ACE or ARB). 52(25/27) MMF 25 to 36 mg/kg/d (Max dose of 1 g/d) + lisinopril lisinopril or placebo 25 to 36 mg/kg/d (Max dose of 1 g/d) 12 M
Julian 1993 [17] Ccr > 25 ml/min/1.73 m2 35(17/18) prednisone no placebo 12 M
Yoshikawa 1999a [18] < 15 Years old 78(40/38) Prednisolone 2 mg/kg/d in three divided doses for a total dose of not more than 80 mg/d for 4w, followed by 2 mg/kg /2d, given as a single dose in the morning of every other day for 4w, 1.5 mg/kg/2d for 4w, and 1 mg/kg/2d for 21 m + azathioprine 2 mg/kg/d in a single morning dose for 24 m + heparin-warfarin + dipyridamole heparin-warfarin + dipyridamole 24 M
Katafuchi 2003 [19] ≤60 years old, Cr < 1.5 mg/dl(132.6umol/L) 90(43/47) prednisolone orally: 20 mg/d for 1 month, followed by 15 mg/d for 1 month, 10 mg/d for 1 month, 7.5 mg/d for 3 months, and 5 mg/d for 18 months + dipyridamole 150–300 mg/day Dipyridamole 150–300 mg/day 60 M
Kim 2013 [20] 18–70 years old, serum creatinine ≤1.5 mg/dL or eGFR ≥45 ml/min/1.73 m2, UACR 0.3-3 g/g creatinine, BP < 130/80 mmHg 40(20/20) Tacrolimus 0.1 mg/kg/day, 8 weeks (maintain trough levels at 5–10 ng/ml) → 0.05 mg/kg/day, 16 weeks (maintain the trough level in 5–10 ng/ml) + RASi(9/20) RASi(11/20), placebo 16 W
Koike 2008 [21] NA 48(24/24) initially treated with 0.4 mg/kg/day of prednisolone (20–30 mg/day) for the first 4 weeks, and the dose was gradually reduced to 10–20 mg on alternate days for the next 12 months, and then 5–10 mg on alternate days for a subsequent year Dipyridamole or dilazep hydrochloride 24 M
Pozzi 1999b [22] 15–69 years old, urinary protein excretion of 1.0–3.5 g/d, Cr ≤ 133 umol/L (1.5 mg/dL) 86(43/43) methylprednisolone intravenously for 3 consecutive days; this course was repeated 2 months and 4 months later. Oral prednisone was given at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg on alternate days for 6 months. Supportive treatment 60 M
Lai 1986 [23] 14–42 years old, IgAN & NS 34(17/17) prednisone/prednisolone 40-60 mg/d, reduce by half after 8 weeks Supportive therapy 38 M
Lv 2009 [24] 18–65 years old, urinary proteins 1–5 g/d, eGFR> 30 ml/min 63(33/30) prednisone: 0.8–1.0 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks, tapered by 5–10 mg every 2 weeks + cilazapril cilazapril 48 M
Lv 2017 [25] proteinuria> 1 g/d, eGFR: 20 -120 ml/min/1.73m2 262(136/126) oral methylprednisolone (0.6–0.8 mg/kg/d; maximum, 48 mg/d) placebo 60 M
Maes 2004 [26] > 18 years old, inulin clearance 20–70 mL/min/1.73m2, proteinuria > 1 g/day, BP > 140/90 mmHg, 34(21/13) MMF: 2 g/d + ACEI Placebo (identical lactose-containing capsules) 36 M
Manno 2009 [27] 16–70 years old, proteinuria> 1 g/d, eGFR≥50 ml/min/1.73m2 97(48/49) prednisone: 1.0 mg/kg/day (Max: 75 mg/day) for 2 months, tapered by 0.2 mg/kg/day every month ramipril ramipril 5Y
Rauen 2015 [28] proteinuria> 0.75 g/d after 6 months support treatment 162(82/80) Supportive Care (100%) + Immunosuppression RASi (77/80) 36 M
Shoji 2000 [29] 15–55 years old, proteinuria less than 1.5 g/d, serum creatinine level less than 1.5 mg/dL 19(11/8) prednisolone 0.8 mg/kg of body weight; this was gradually reduced to a daily dose of 0.4 mg/kg of body weight during the first month of therapy, and then tapered to 10 mg very other day for the remainder of the 1 year of therapy Dipyridamole 300 mg/day 12 M
Tang 2005c[30] urinary proteins> 1 g/d, BP < 125/85 mmHg, Cr < 300umol/L(3.4 mg/dl) 40(20/20) MMF 2 g/day (weight ≥ 60 kg), 1.5 g/day (weight < 60 kg) + ACEI/ARB(16:4) ACEI/ARB (14:6) 72 W
Walker 1990 [31] 24 h pro> 1.0 g/d, 120umol/L < Cr < 200umol/L one or more 52(25/27) Cyclophosphamide (1–2 mg/kg/24 h - maximum of 100 mg/24 h and ajusted according to peripheral white cell counts) + dipyridamole +warfarin no treatment 2Y
Wu 2016 [32] 18–55 years, proteinuria of 0.5–3.5 g/d, serum creatinine < 265 μmol/L, blood pressure between 90/60 and 130/80 mmHg 399(100/299) Leflunomide 20 mg/d + telmisartan + clopidogrel placebo Telmisartan + Leflunomide placebo + clopidogrel placebo & Telmisartan + clopidogrel + Leflunomide placebo & Telmisartan + clopidogrel 24w
Xie 2011 [33] 14–70 years old, urinary protein excretion: 0.5 to 3.5 g/24 h, Cr < 353.6 umol/L 64(34/30) MZR 200 mg/d (weight < 50 kg), 250 mg/d (weight > 50 kg), 150 mg/d (Cr > 176.8 umol/L) + losartan Losartan 12 M
Woo 1987 [34]   48(27/21) cyclophosphamide 1.5 mg/kg per day+ dipyridamole + warfarin No treatment 36 M
  1. Abbreviations: NA not applicable, MMF mycophenolate mofetil, SRL sirolimus, MZR mizoribine
  2. aKamei 2011 and Yoshikawa 1999 describe the same trial, but the available data provided by the articles are different. Here, only the data of Yoshikawa 1999 are listed
  3. bLocatelli 2001 and Pozzi 2004 were follow-up studies of Pozzi 1999, and only the data of Pozzi 1999 are listed here
  4. cTang 2010 was a follow-up study of Tang 2005, and only the data of Tang 2005 are listed here