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Table 2 Effect of curcumin treatment for 24 days on serum and urine biomarkers of renal function in adenine-induced CKD rats

From: Chronic treatment of curcumin improves hepatic lipid metabolism and alleviates the renal damage in adenine-induced chronic kidney disease in Sprague-Dawley rats

Biologic
Fluid
Biomarker Normal
Control
CKD
Control
CUR
(50 mg/kg)
CUR
(100 mg/kg)
CUR
(150 mg/kg)
Serum
  Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.45 ± 0.07 2.62 ± 0.08### 2.50 ± 0.15ns 1.71 ± 0.10** 1.27 ± 0.48**
BUN (mg/dL) 4.46 ± 1.53 13.09 ± 1.19## 12.49 ± 2.53 ns 7.14 ± 1.60* 4.99 ± 1.30**
Albumin (mg/dL) 8.41 ± 0.32 5.47 ± 0.08### 6.57 ± 0.27 ns 7.06 ± 0.39** 6.45 ± 0.27*
Urine
  Urine volume (mL) 24.40 ± 2.21 37.00 ± 1.58### 32.50 ± 0.92 28.58 ± 1.46*** 25.67 ± 1.17***
Total protein (mg/24 h) 5.52 ± 0.83 70.73 ± 4.14### 25.26 ± 3.07*** 14.82 ± 3.33*** 18.13 ± 2.46***
Creatinine (mg/dL) 28.69 ± 2.61 11.23 ± 0.34### 13.54 ± 0.85 ns 22.72 ± 1.31*** 23.56 ± 2.15***
UUN (mg/dL) 14.28 ± 1.06 5.95 ± 0.75### 8.92 ± 0.82ns 9.96 ± 0.65** 10.01 ± 0.25**
CrCl (mL/min/kg) 3.07 ± 0.20 0.63 ± 0.13### 0.53 ± 0.05 ns 1.37 ± 0.15* 2.03 ± 0.23***
  1. Values represent the mean ± SEM of 5 to 6 rats
  2. Significant difference from normal control: ##p < 0.01; ###p < 0.001
  3. Significant difference from CKD control: *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  4. No significant difference from CKD control: ns (p > 0.05)
  5. CKD Chronic kidney disease; CUR Curcumin; BUN Blood urea nitrogen; CrCl Creatinine clearance; UUN Urine urea nitrogen