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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants with and without incidentchronic kidney disease (CKD) at follow-up

From: Risk scores for predicting incident chronic kidney disease among rural Chinese people: a village-based cohort study

CharacteristicTotal (n = 3266)Without incident CKD (n = 2676)With incident CKD (n = 590)P value
Age (years)50 ± 1050 ± 1053 ± 10< 0.001
Female sex, n (%)1805 (55.3)1392 (52.0)413 (70.0)< 0.001
BMI (kg/m2)24.6 ± 3.524.5 ± 3.525.1 ± 3.4< 0.001
Waist circumference (cm)87.2 ± 9.386.8 ± 9.289.1 ± 9.5< 0.001
SBP (mmHg)137.2 ± 20.7134.9 ± 19.5147.5 ± 22.7< 0.001
DBP (mmHg)77.3 ± 11.776.4 ± 11.281.1 ± 13.0< 0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.56 ± 0.914.53 ± 0.904.72 ± 0.95< 0.001
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)1.27 ± 0.281.28 ± 0.281.26 ± 0.310.167
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)2.68 ± 0.632.65 ± 0.632.80 ± 0.64< 0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.24 (0.87–1.79)1.20 (0.85–1.73)1.42 (0.98–2.08)< 0.001
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)5.49 (5.16–5.89)5.48 (5.14–5.86)5.58 (5.24–6.08)< 0.001
CRP (mg/L)0.80 (0.37–2.05)0.75 (0.35–1.88)1.17 (0.49–2.75)< 0.001
Urea (mmol/L)4.78 ± 1.194.77 ± 1.174.82 ± 1.270.340
Creatinine (mmol/L)70.9 ± 9.971.1 ± 9.870.2 ± 10.30.081
eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m2102.6 ± 16.1103.3 ± 16.399.6 ± 14.8< 0.001
Albumin-to-creatinine ratio (mg/g)6.89 (3.42–12.60)6.60 (3.30–12.10)8.52 (4.32–15.33)< 0.001
Current smoker, n (%)890 (27.3)786 (29.4)104 (17.6)< 0.001
Current drinker, n (%)610 (18.7)543 (20.3)67 (11.4)< 0.001
Regular consumption of fresh fruits, n (%)315 (9.6)280 (10.5)35 (5.9)0.006
Regular consumption of fresh vegetables, n (%)3245 (99.4)2659 (99.4)586 (99.3)0.907
Education, n (%)   < 0.001
 Illiterate398 (12.2)280 (10.5)118 (20.0) 
 Primary School1704 (52.2)1392 (52.0)312 (52.9) 
 Junior high1062 (32.5)915 (34.2)147 (24.9) 
 Senior high102 (3.1)89 (3.3)13 (2.2) 
Physical activity, n (%)   0.856
 Low595 (18.2)483 (18.0)112 (19.0) 
 Moderate409 (12.5)337 (12.6)72 (12.2) 
 High2262 (69.3)1856 (69.4)406 (68.8) 
Hypertension, n (%)1488 (45.6)1099 (41.1)389 (65.9)< 0.001
Diabetes, n (%)161 (4.9)88 (3.3)73 (12.4)< 0.001
Cardiovascular disease, n (%)234 (7.2)185 (6.9)49 (8.3)0.235
Use of antihypertensive agents, n (%)600 (18.4)409 (15.3)191 (32.4)< 0.001
Use of lipid-lowering agents, n (%)58 (1.8)45 (1.7)13 (2.2)0.385
Use of anti-diabetic agents, n (%)44 (1.3)23 (0.9)21 (3.6)< 0.001
  1. Data are presented as means ± standard deviations, medians (interquartile ranges), or numbers (percentages). Chi-square test was used for categorical variables and the unpaired t test or Mann-Whitney U test was used for continuous variables
  2. CKD Chronic kidney disease, BMI Body mass index, SBP Systolic blood pressure, DBP Diastolic blood pressure, HDL-C High density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C Low density lipoprotein cholesterol, CRP C-reactive protein, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate