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Table 3 Quality assessment of included articles (n = 25)

From: The gut microbiota profile of adults with kidney disease and kidney stones: a systematic review of the literature

Reference Sampling (4 points) Confounders controlled (2 points) Exposure (3 points) Total rating (9 points)
[37] – − − − – − + + − 2
[60] – − − − + − + + − 3
[44, 46] + − − − – − + + + 4
[41] – − − − + − + + + 4
[36, 48] + − − − + − + + + 5
[55] + + − − – − + + + 5
[45] + − − + –  − + + + 5
[38, 39, 47, 51] + − − − + + + + + 6
[42] + + − − + − + + + 6
[43, 53, 56, 57, 58, 61] + + − − + + + + + 7
[40, 49, 52, 62] + − − + + + + + + 7
[50] + + + − + + + + + 8
  1. Legend: ‘+’ Quality criterion satisfied; ‘-’ Quality criterion not satisfied or insufficient information to adjudicate as satisfied. Studies with a quality score of seven or above were considered high-quality