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Table 2 Exercise training parameters

From: Effects of exercise training on proteinuria in adult patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

StudyModalityIntensitySession long, minFollow-up, moFrequencySettingSupervisionAdherence reporting
Hellberg [26] Sweden (2019)E1: ST + ETST: RPE 13–17ST: 90 min/w12 moST: 3 times/wHB /nearby gymNOYES
ET: Walking, running, cycling, and rowing etc.ET: RPE 13–15ET: 30 min, 60 min/wET: 2 times/w
ST: Quadriceps extension, hamstrings curl, lats-pull down, etc. 2–3 sets of 10 repetitions.
E2: BT + ETST: RPE 13–17BT: 90 min/w12 moBT: 3 times/w
ET: The same to E1.BT: RPE 13–17ET: 30 min, 60 min/wET: 2 times/w
BT: Static and dynamic balance exercises (maintaining balance while standing with feet together, standing on one leg, etc.) 10 repetitions, 2–3 sets.(Vigorous)
Liang [27] China (2016)E1: AEE1: 50%AE: 30 min3 mo3 times/wUnclearUnclearNO
5 min warm up, ride a bike, 5 min of relaxation.VO2peak
RPE 12–13 (Moderate)
RE: 10 s/actions, 10 times/actions
E2: AE + REE2: 50% VO2peak
5 min warm up, ride a bike plus thera-band resistance training.RPE 12–13
C: High quality and low protein (≤0.6 g/kg/d) and other reasonable diet, and routine treatment.
Aoike [28] Brizal (2017)E1: HB AE
AE: Walking.
E1: 40–60% VO2peak
AE: 30 min,
Puls 10 min/4 w
3 mo3 times/wHB+ CBYESNO
AE: Walking on a treadmill.
E2: 40–60% VO2peak (Moderate)
C: Usual care
Leehey [29] The USA (2009)E: AEE: 20–60% VO2peak30 min6 mo3 times/wCB+ HBYES (6 w)
NO (18 w)
AE: Walking on a treadmill. Warm-up, range-of-motion exercises, interval training, cool-down, and post-exercise range-of-motion exercises.(Moderate)Plus 5 min/2 w
C: Underwent the same testing battery but did not participate in any exercise training.
Hiraki [30] Japan (2017)E: AE + REE: RPEAE: 30 min/800012 mo3 times/wHBNOYES
AE: Walking.(Moderate)−10,000 steps
RE: Handgrip strengthening device squats and calf raises 20–30 repetitions per exercise.RE: 20–30 min
 C: Wore an accelerometer, but not given any exercise advice and continue the daily exercise.
Leehey [31] The USA (2016)E: AE + RE + diet (Nutritional counselling)E: 25–84% VO2peakAE: 60 min13 mo60 min/time- 3 times/wHBYESNO
(Vigorous)RE: 20–30 min30 min/time- 6 times/w
AE: Interval training on a treadmill.HB (AE + RE):
RE: An elliptical trainer and cycle ergometer progressive resistance lower body exercise using elastic bands, hand-held weights or weight machine.30 min/time, or 60 min/time
C: Diet (Nutritional counselling).
Pechter [32] Estonia (2003)E: AEE: Low intensity30 min3 mo2 times/wUnclearUnclearN0
AE: Water-based, vertically in the pool with total immersion (water temperature, 24 °C), 10 min warm-up exercises with gradually increasing intensity, 10 min cooling-down exercise.
C: Unclear
Viana [33] England (2014)E: AEE: RPE 12–1430 min6 mo5 times/wHBYESNO
AE: walking.(Moderate)
C: Usual physical activity.
Nylen [34] The USA (2015)E1: AE + REE1: 50–80% HRR60 min3 moUnclearUnclearYESNO
AE + RE: 1 h session conclude that warm-up and cool-down and 30 min of combined aerobic and resistance training.(Vigorous)
E2: The same to E1.E2: 50–80% HRR60 min3 moUnclear
E3: The same to E1.E3: 50–80% HRR60 min3 moUnclear
Hamada [35] Japan (2016)E: AE + RERE: 3–4 METS90–120 min6 mo6 session/monthHBUnclearNO
AE + RE: Resistance and effective walking.AE: 12–14 RPE
Zhang [36] China (2018)E:AE + REIPAQ30 min6 mo3 times/wHBUnclearNO
Regular walking, yoga, aerobic gymnastics, biking, etc.(Vigorous)
One or more forms of the aerobic and resistance exercise items.
C: Ordinary daily activities.
  1. Notes. E Exercise group, C Control group, AE Aerobic exercise, RE Resistance exercise, w week, mo month, ST Strength training, BT Balance training, HB Home-based, CB Center-based, min minutes, HRR Heart rate reserve, ET Endurance training, RPE Rating of perceived exertion, METs Metabolic equivalent, VO2peak Peak oxygen uptake, IPAQ International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The intensity of classification about low, moderate, and vigorous according to the advice of ACSM [23]