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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants with comparisons between those who did and did not complete the study

From: Quality of life improved for patients after starting dialysis but is impaired, initially, for their partners: a multi-centre, longitudinal study

  Patients   Partners
Overall N = 83 Pre-dialysis only n = 45 Completed study n = 39 p-value Overall N = 83 Pre-dialysis only n = 45 Completed study n = 39 p-value
Socio-demographic characteristics
 Male n (%)^ 52 (63%) 26 (59%) 26 (67%) 0.51 31 (37%) 18 (41%) 13 (33%) 0.51
 Age M (SD, years) 64 (14) 64 (14) 64 (14) 0.82 63 (15) 64 (15) 62 (15) 0.72
 Married n (%)^ 69 (84%) 36 (82%) 33 (87%) 5.29 70 (84%) 36 (82%) 34 (87%) 6.61
 Highest level of education n (%)^     3.68     1.51
  None 4 (5%) 3 (7%) 1 (3%)   4 (5%) 3 (7%) 1 (3%)  
  Primary school 3 (4%) 2 (5%) 1 (3%)   2 (2%) 1 (2%) 1 (3%)  
  Secondary school 40 (48%) 19 (43%) 21 (55%)   33 (40%) 18 (41%) 15 (38%)  
  College or training certification 25 (30%) 15 (34%) 10 (26%)   36 (43%) 18 (41%) 18 (46%)  
  University – undergraduate 4 (5%) 3 (7%) 1 (3%)   5 (6%) 3 (7%) 2 (5%)  
  University – postgraduate 6 (7%) 2 (5%) 4 (11%)   3 (4%) 1 (2%) 2 (5%)  
  Missing 1 (1%) 0 (0%) 1 (3%)   
 Ethnicity n (%)*^     3.72     3.73
  White British 75 (91%) 38 (87%) 37 (94%)   77 (93%) 39 (89%) 38 (97%)  
  White Other 1 (1%) 1 (2%) 0 (0%)   1 (1%) 1 (2%) 0 (0%)  
  Asian Pakistani 2 (2%) 1 (2%) 1 (3%)   2 (2%) 1 (2%) 1 (3%)  
  Asian Other 3 (4%) 3 (7%) 0 (0%)   2 (2%) 2 (5%) 0 (0%)  
  Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups   1 (1%) 1 (2%) 0 (0%)  
  Missing 2 (2%) 1 (2%) 1 (3%)   
 Employment status n (%)^     0.32     1.86
  Retired 44 (53%) 23 (52%) 21 (55%)   45 (54%) 23 (52%) 22 (56%)  
  Working full-time 20 (24%) 10 (23%) 10 (26%)   15 (18%) 7 (16%) 8 (21%)  
  Working part-time 5 (6%) 3 (7%) 2 (5%)   10 (12%) 6 (14%) 4 (10%)  
  Unable to work 12 (14%) 7 (16%) 5 (13%)   6 (7%) 3 (7%) 3 (8%)  
  Do not work   6 (7%) 4 (9%) 2 (5%)  
  Missing 2 (2%) 1 (2%) 1 (3%)   1 (1%) 1 (2%) 0 (0%)  
Dialysis characteristics
 Type of patient n (%)^     1.53     
  Incident patient 54 (65%) 28 (64%) 26 (67%)   
  Prevalent patient 6 (7%) 2 (4%) 4 (10%)   
  Missing 23 (28%) 14 (32%) 9 (23%)   
 Start of dialysis^     10.30     
  Planned 52 (63%) 22 (50%) 30 (77%)   
  Unplanned 4 (5%) 1 (2%) 3 (8%)   
  Missing 27 (32%) 21 (48%) 6 (15%)   
 Mode of dialysis n (%)^     1.76     
  HD 50 (60%) 29 (66%) 21 (54%)   
  PD 24 (29%) 10 (23%) 14 (36%)   
  Missing 9 (11%) 5 (11%) 4 (10%)   
 Type of access at pre-dialysis n (%)^    11.69     
  AVF 27 (33%) 12 (27%) 15 (38%)   
  Tesio line 7 (8%) 3 (7%) 4 (10%)   
  PD catheter 21 (25%) 7 (16%) 14 (36%)   
  Missing 28 (34%) 22 (50%) 6 (16%)   
Clinical variables
eGFRM (SD) 9.2 (3.3) 10.0 (4.0) 8.5 (2.2) 0.04  
  Haemoglobin g/L M (SD) 107.9 (15.9) 109.9 (15.2) 105.8 (16.6) 0.27  
  Serum albumin g/L M (SD) 37.9 (6.0) 39.0 (6.3) 36.7 (5.5) 0.10  
 Comorbidity risk n (%)^     2.25     
  Low 23 (28%) 12 (27%) 11 (28%)   
  Medium 42 (50%) 20 (45%) 22 (56%)   
  High 10 (12%) 6 (14%) 4 (10%)   
  Missing 8 (10%) 6 (14%) 2 (5%)      
 Primary renal diagnosis n (%)^     8.70     
  Glomerulonephritis 10 (12%) 5 (11%) 2 (13%)   
  Polycystic 9 (11%) 6 (14%) 3 (8%)   
  Diabetes 7 (8%) 4 (9%) 3 (8%)   
  Renal vascular disease 5 (6%) 4 (9%) 1 (3%)   
  Hypertension 4 (5%) 2 (5%) 2 (5%)   
  Pyelonephritis 3 (4%) 3 (7%) 0 (0%)   
  Other 4 (5%) 3 (7%) 1 (3%)   
  Uncertain 7 (8%) 4 (9%) 3 (8%)   
  Missing 34 (41%) 13 (30%) 21 (54%)      
Quality of life
 WHOQOL General QOL 2.8 (0.9) 2.8 (0.9) 2.8 (0.8) 0.94 3.5 (0.9) 3.5 (0.9) 3.6 (0.9) 0.47
 WHOQOL Physical 46.4 (21.9) 44.46 (23.1) 48.3 (20.7) 0.44 67.3 (21.3) 66.0 (21.1) 68.7 (21.6) 0.58
 WHOQOL Psychological 61.7 (18.6) 60.1 (17.4) 63.2 (19.9) 0.48 66.0 (18.6) 64.5 (19.1) 67.5 (18.2) 0.50
 WHOQOL Social 63.2 (21.1) 61.2 (20.6) 65.3 (21.7) 0.40 64.8 (16.7) 62.3 (18.3) 67.4 (14.6) 0.18
 WHOQOL Environmental 67.4 (15.1) 65.6 (14.6) 69.2 (15.6) 0.29 67.8 (15.9) 65.0 (15.2) 70.8 (16.2) 0.11
Psychological and relationship variables
 HADS Anxiety 6.9 (4.3) 7.1 (4.3) 6.7 (4.3) 0.73 7.1 (4.0) 6.4 (3.8) 7.8 (4.2) 0.13
 HADS Depression 6.8 (4.2) 6.9 (4.3) 6.7 (4.1) 0.83 5.1 (4.1) 5.4 (4.3) 4.7 (3.9) 0.46
 Dialysis expectations 3.3 (0.7) 3.3 (0.7) 3.4 (0.7) 0.62 3.2 (0.5) 3.1 (0.4) 3.2 (0.6) 0.46
 Accepting dialysis 3.3 (0.6) 3.3 (0.6) 3.3 (0.6) 0.82 3.4 (0.7) 3.4 (0.6) 3.4 (0.7) 0.71
 Dyadic relationship characteristics 3.9 (0.6) 4.1 (0.6) 3.8 (0.7) 0.09 3.8 (0.6) 3.9 (0.6) 3.7 (0.5) 0.13
 Relationship satisfaction 4.4 (0.9) 4.4 (0.9) 4.5 (0.9) 0.79 4.4 (0.7) 4.3 (0.8) 4.4 (0.7) 0.71
Symptoms
 Symptom severity 20.9 (11.5) 22.1 (13.3) 19.8 (9.5) 0.39 9.3 (8.7) 9.2 (9.1) 9.3 (8.4) 0.97
 Number of symptoms 9.3 (4.2) 9.0 (4.8) 9.5 (3.6) 0.58 4.8 (3.6) 4.4 (3.8) 5.2 (3.4) 0.29
  1. Note. AVF arteriovenous fistula, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HD haemodialysis, PD peritoneal dialysis, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, QOL quality of life, WHOQOL World Health Organization’s Quality of Life Short Form (BREF). Incident patient means a patient starting dialysis for the first time; prevalent refers to a patient who has been on a form of renal replacement therapy before but who intends to start dialysis due to a failing transplant. QOL was measured using the WHOQOL-BREF with scoring range of 1–5 for General QOL and 1–100 for its four domains. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the HADS, scoring range 0–21. Dialysis expectations, accepting dialysis, dyadic relationship characteristics and relationship satisfaction were assessed using study specific measures designed by the research team, each with a scoring range of 1–5. Symptoms were measured using the Palliative care Outcomes Scale – Symptoms (POS-S). Patients completed the renal version (17 items, severity symptom score range 0–68), and partners completed the general version (14 items, severity symptom score range 0–56). High scores on the WHOQOL-BREF indicate good QOL. High scores on dialysis expectations, accepting dialysis, DRC and relationship satisfaction suggest high expectations of dialysis, being accepting of dialysis, cohesive relationships characteristics between patients and partners, and satisfaction in the couple’s relationship. High scores on the HADS and POS-S suggest the presence of anxiety, depression and high symptom burden
  2. * Ethnicity codes taken from those used in UK renal units
  3. ^ Chi-squared