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Table 1 Basic characteristics of vegetarians and omnivores

From: Healthy adult vegetarians have better renal function than matched omnivores: a cross-sectional study in China

Variables Vegetarians
Vegans Lacto-ovo vegetarians Total vegetariansa Omnivores
n = 70 n = 199 n = 269 n = 269
Sex (Females, %) 74.3 85.4 82.2 82.2
Age (years) 37.2 ± 9.2 34.8 ± 8.3 35.4 ± 8.6 34.8 ± 9.4
Vegetarian diet duration (years) 5.4 ± 4.5 5.4 ± 5.2 5.4 ± 5.0  
Income per month (yuan)
  < 3000 17.1 19.2 18.7b 26.1
 3000 ~ 8000 67.2 68.2 67.9b 65.3
  > 8000 15.7 12.6 13.4b 8.6
Education (%)
 Primary or secondary 21.4 13.1 15.3b 17.7
 Vocational 18.6 15.2 16.0b 17.7
 College and above 60 71.7 68.7b 64.6
Alcohol consumption (%)
 None or rarely 98.6 93.5c 95.1b 83.4
 Monthly or weekly 0 5.5c 4.1b 12.4
 Daily 1.4 1 0.8b 4.2
Smoking (%) 14.3 8 9.7 8.2
BMI (kg/m2) 20.5 ± 2.4 21.1 ± 2.7 20.9 ± 2.6b 22.4 ± 3.5
Physical activity (hours/week) 2.0 ± 2.9 1.8 ± 2.3 1.9 ± 2.5b 1.4 ± 2.0
Skeletal muscle mass (kg) 22.7 ± 4.8 22.2 ± 3.8 22.3 ± 4.1 23.3 ± 4.8
Systolic pressure (mmHg) 108.6 ± 12.3 107.8 ± 12.8 108.0 ± 12.7 111.6 ± 15.4
Diastolic pressure (mmHg) 69.9 ± 9.4 69.8 ± 9.0 69.9 ± 9.1 70.4 ± 11.0
Fasting blood glucose (mmol/L) 4. 6 ± 0.4 4.7 ± 0.7 4.6 ± 0.62 4.8 ± 0.4
TGs (mmol/L) 1.0 ± 0.5 0.9 ± 0.5 1.0 ± 0.5 0.9 ± 0.5
TC (mmol/L) 4.0 ± 0.8 4.1 ± 0.8 4.1 ± 0.8b 4.6 ± 0.8
LDL (mmol/L) 2.5 ± 0.6 2.6 ± 0.6 2.5 ± 0.6b 2.9 ± 0.7
HDL (mmol/L) 1.3 ± 0.2 1.3 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.3
LDL/HDL 2.2 ± 0.6 2.1 ± 0.6 2.1 ± 0.6b 2.2 ± 0.7
  1. aTotal vegetarians: lacto-ovo vegetarians and vegans
  2. bStatistical significance when comparing vegetarians and omnivores, P < 0.05
  3. cStatistical significance when comparing vegans and lacto-ovo vegetarians, P < 0.05