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Table 2 Clinical characteristics according to quartiles of protein carbonyl

From: Serum levels of protein carbonyl, a marker of oxidative stress, are associated with overhydration, sarcopenia and mortality in hemodialysis patients

Variable Q1(n = 22) Q2 (n = 22) Q3(n = 22) Q4 (n = 22)
  25.0 to < 57.5 57.5 to < 79.0 79.0 to < 106.8 106.8 to 432.0
Age (years) 56 (49–67) 59 (50–77) 63 (51–73) 60 (55–72)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 22 (20–24) 22 (21–24) 22 (19–25) 21 (20–24)
Gender, male, n (%) 12 (54.5) 11 (50.0) 12 (54.5) 16 (69.6)
Diabetic, n (%) 13 (59.1) 14 (63.6) 13 (59.1) 10 (43.5)
Cause of ESRD, n (%)
 Diabetes 13 (54.5) 13 (59.1) 13 (59.1) 10 (45.5)
 Hypertension 6 (27.3) 4 (18.2) 6 (27.3) 5 (22.7)
 Glomerulonephritis 2 (9.1) 2 (9.1) 3 (13.6) 4 (18.2)
 Others 2 (9.1) 3 (13.6) 0 3 (13.6)
HD vintage (months) 40 (28–59) 19 (24–48) 20 (11–49) 38 (18–43)
CAD, n (%) 5 (22.7) 6 (27.3) 6 (27.3) 11 (50.0)
CVD, n (%) 2 (9.1) 6 (27.3) 6 (27.3) 7 (31.8)
PAOD, n (%) 1 (4.5) 2 (9.1) 1 (4.5) 3 (13.6)
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 9.7 (9.1–10.4) 10.6 (8.8–10.4) 10.1 (8.9–10.7) 9.7 (8.7–10.5)
Albumin (g/dL) 3.6 (3.5–3.7) 3.7 (3.4–3.7) 3.4 (3.0–3.6) 3.5 (3.3–3.6)
Prealbumin (mg/dL) * 30 (26–35) 25 (21–30) 26 (22–31) 23 (19–28)
Transferrin (μg/dL) * 217 (200–232) 200 (171–215) 185 (152–210) 175 (158–209)
Ferritin (ng/mL) 199 (86–309) 165 (125–237) 140 (92–251) 199 (139–312)
Transferrin saturation (%) 34 (28–40) 35 (28–51) 33 (24–42) 34 (30–42)
IV iron, n (%) 4 (18.2) 0 3 (13.6) 6 (27.3)
IV iron dose, mg 475 ± 75 0 400 ± 31 417 ± 31
Erythropoietin stimulating dose
 DPO (ug/week), n = 40 61 (35–98) 69 (48–92) 60 (39–93) 71 (48–101)
 EPO (IU/week), n = 48 15,782 17,202 16,042 18,902
β2-microglobulin (mg/L) 24 (20–30) 26 (21–30) 17 (30–33) 29 (22–31)
HbA1c, (%) 6.8 (6.6–8.5) 6.4 (6.1–7.5) 6.8 (6.1–7.4) 7.2 (5.9–9.1)
Loss of RRF, n (%) 10 (45.4) 12 (54.5) 13 (59.1) 14 (63.6)
IL-6 (pg/ml) 3.1 (1.9–6.5) 5.3 (1.7–6.5) 5.7 (3.0–13.7) 5.4 (2.7–9.9)
hs-CRP (mg/L) 0.8 (0.6–1.9) 1.2 (0.3–6.5) 1.0 (0.6–2.1) 1.3 (0.5–3.8)
Fibrinogen (mg/dL) 326 (261–397) 339 (316–372) 3,329,267–374) 334 (261–417)
SGA score * 6.0 (6.0–7.0) 6.0 (6.0–7.0) 6.0 (5.0–7.0) 6.0 (5.0–6.0)
SGA < 6, n (%) * 2 (9.1) 4 (18.2) 6 (27.3) 10 (45.5)
OH/ECW (%) * −1.5 (−11–29.) −3.8 (−13.5–35) 0 (−16–58) 10.8 (3–48)
HGS (kg)
 Male * 30.5 (21–36) 31.6 (28–34) 29.3 (19–32) 23.6 (20–30)
 Female 20.8 (20–26) 22.1 (18–27) 19.0 (16–22) 19.8 (19–20)
LTI (kg/m2)
 Male * 13.8 (11.8–16.2) 15.2 (11.5–16.9) 13.8 (11.5–16.2) 11.8 (9.3–14.3)
 Female 11.3 (10.4–12.9) 12.6 (10.0–14.5) 11.3 (10.4–12.0) 11.1 (9.6–12.4)
FTI (kg/m2)
 Male 7.5 (5.5–14.5) 7.1 (3.0–10.8) 6.1 (4.6–10.5) 8.8 (7.1–10.1)
 Female 9.3 (7.9–18.0) 7.6 (6.2–9.2) 11 (6.7–16.4) 12.0 (10.3–14.9)
Low LTI, n (%) * 8 (36.4) 7 (31.8) 7 (31.8) 14 (63.6)
Low HGS, n (%) 7 (31.8) 12 (54.5) 14 (63.6) 16 (72.7)
Mortality, n (%) * 5 (22.7) 6 (27.3) 6 (27.3) 13 (59.1)
  1. HD hemodialysis, CAD coronary artery disease, CVD cerebrovascular disease, PAOD peripheral artery disease, IV intravenous, DPO Darbepoetin, EPO erythropoietin, RRF residual renal function, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, SGA subjective global assessment, OH overhydration index, ECW extracellular water, HGS handgrip strength, LTI lean tissue index, FTI fat tissue index
  2. *p < 0.05