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Table 1 Participant characteristics according to frailty (N = 109)

From: Association among kidney function, frailty, and oral function in patients with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study

  Overall Robust + pre-frail (non-frail) (n = 78) Frail (n = 31) p-value
Sex (male), n (%) (a) 72 (66.1) 54 (69.2) 18 (58.1) 0.267
Age, median (IQR) (b) 71 (66–79) 71 (66–78) 78 (69–85) 0.004
BMI, mean ± SD (c) 23.8 ± 3.9 24.3 ± 3.7 22.7 ± 4.0 0.039
CKD stage, n (%) (a) 3a 17 (15.6) 15 (19.2) 2 (11.8) 0.167
3b 35 (32.1) 27 (34.6) 8 (22.9)
4 40 (36.7) 26 (33.3) 14 (35.0)
5 17 (15.6) 10 (12.8) 7 (41.2)
Blood chemistry, mean ± SD, median (IQR) eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) (c) 29.8 ± 13.1 31.6 ± 13.1 25.2 ± 12.2 0.02
Haemoglobin (g/dL) (c) 12.4 ± 1.7 12.6 ± 1.6 11.9 ± 1.8 0.036
Albumin (g/dL) (b) 3.9 (3.6–4.1) 3.9 (3.6–4.1) 3.9 (3.6–4.1) 0.788
Triglyceride (mg/dL) (b) 121.0 (98.0–176.0) 119.0 (104.5–176.8) 126.0 (104.5–176.8) 0.644
Blood glucose (mg/dL) (b) 106.0 (92.0–128.0) 106.0 (91.8–128.8) 110.0 (93.3–128.3) 0.724
Primary kidney disease, n (%) (a) Glomerulonephritis 24 (22.0) 19 (24.4) 5 (16.1) 0.582
Diabetic nephropathy 19 (17.4) 13 (16.7) 6 (19.4)
Polycystic kidney disease 1 (0.9) 1 (1.3) 0
Nephrosclerosis 35 (32.1) 22 (28.2) 13 (41.9)
Others 30 (27.5) 23 (29.5) 7 (22.6)
Comorbidity, n (%) (a) Diabetes Mellitus 38 (34.5) 24 (30.8) 14 (45.2) 0.155
Hypertension 75 (68.2) 55 (70.5) 20 (64.5) 0.542
Hyperlipidaemia 38 (34.5) 29 (37.2) 9 (29.0) 0.421
Cardiovascular disease 24 (22.0) 14 (17.9) 10 (32.3) 0.104
Cerebrovascular disease 8 (7.3) 5 (6.4) 3 (9.7) 0.555
Hyperuricemia 25 (22.7) 18 (23.1) 7 (22.6) 0.956
Osteoporosis 2 (1.8) 1 (1.3) 1 (3.2) 0.495
Oral function, mean ± SD or median (IQR) ODK (pa)/sec (b) 6.0 (4.8–6.7) 6.2 (5.6–6.8) 5.3 (4.4–6.5) 0.004
ODK (ta)/sec (b) 5.8 (4.9–6.4) 6.0 (5.2–6.7) 4.9 (4.0–6.1) 0.001
ODK (ka)/sec (b) 5.2 (4.0–6.0) 5.6 (4.2–6.2) 4.3 (3.6–5.9) 0.027
Mastication ability (c) 150.0 ± 61.5 156.9 ± 58.4 132.2 ± 66.6 0.062
RSST number of times (b) 2.0 (1.0–4.0) 2.5 (1.0–4.3) 1.5 (0–3.0) 0.029
Tooth condition, median (IQR) (b) Number of teeth 22.0 (9.0–26.0) 23.0 (13.5–27.0) 15.5 (7.8–25.3) 0.11
Functional teeth 28.0 (25.0–28.0) 28.0 (25.0–28.0) 25.5 (21.0–28.0) 0.015
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or median (inter-quartile range), and compared by χ square testa, Mann-Whitney U testb, and unpaired t-testc. ODK Oral diadochokinesis, RSST Repetitive saliva swallowing test