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Fig. 2 | BMC Nephrology

Fig. 2

From: Association of retinal venular tortuosity with impaired renal function in the Northern Ireland Cohort for the Longitudinal Study of Ageing

Fig. 2

Optic disc centred retinal fundus image assessed using the Vessel Assessment and Measurement Platform for Images of the Retina (VAMPIRE) software. Arterioles (red), venules (blue) and deleted segments (white) are indicated. The retinal microvascular parameters for arteriolar and venular calibre (CRAE, CRVE, and AVR), fractal dimension and tortuosity are calculated from measurements captured in zones B and C (1.0 to 2.5 optic disc diameters from the disc margin)

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