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Table 1 Sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics of study participants without diabetes, hypertension, and heavy proteinuria) n = 821

From: Prevalence and risk factors for chronic kidney disease of unknown cause in Malawi: a cross-sectional analysis in a rural and urban population

Variable eGFR eGFR categories, n(%)b
n = 821 n = 2 n = 36 n = 783
n(%)a Mean (SD) < 60 > = 60, < 90 > = 90
Age (years)
 < 20 60 (7) 132.6 (13.2) 0 1 (2) 59 (98)
 20–29 312 (38) 125.1 (12.6) 0 2 (1) 310 (99)
 30–39 232 (28) 115.7 (12.5) 1 (0.4) 4 (2) 227 (98)
 40–49 130 (16) 107.8 (11.1) 1 (1) 2 (2) 127 (98)
 50–59 46 (6) 100.9 (8.6) 0 6 (12) 40 (87)
 60+ 41 (5) 88.9 (9.9) 0 21 (51) 20 (49)
Sex
 Female 504 (61) 117.3 (15.6) 2 (0.4) 20 (4) 482 (96)
 Male 317 (39) 116.81 (16.7) 0 16 (5) 301 (95)
Area
 Urban (Area 25) 243 (29) 117.6 (14.9) 1 (0.4) 6 (3) 236 (97)
 Rural (Bonje) 578 (71) 116.9 (16.5) 1 (0.2) 30 (5) 547 (95)
Education (years)
 ≤ 5 59 (7) 109.1 (17.9) 0 9 (15) 50 (85)
 > 5 ≤ 10 301 (36) 116.6 (16.4) 1 (0.2) 15 (3) 285 (62)
 > 10 461 (56) 118.5 (15.2) 1 (0.3) 12 (4) 448 (14)
Occupation
 Agricultural worker 383 (47) 113.9 (15.2) 1 (0.3) 20 (5) 362 (95)
 Non-agricultural worker 438 (53) 119.90 (16.2) 1 (0.2) 16 (4) 421 (96)
Household monthly income (MK)c
 Unknown 17 (1) 118.6 (21.1) 1 (6) 0 16 (94)
 MK 0 ≤ 20,000 406 (50) 117.8 (16.6) 0 20 (5) 386 (95)
 MK > 20,000 398 (49) 116.3 (15.1) 1 (0.3) 16 (4) 381 (96)
Healthy lifestyle choices
 Non-smoker/ never drink alcohol 630 (77) 117.0 (15.8) 2 (0.3) 28 (4) 600 (95)
 Smoker/ alcohol drinker 191 (23) 117.3 (16.4) 0 8 (4) 183 (96)
Regular meat-eater
 Yes 621 (76) 117.5 (15.6) 2 (0.3) 25 (4) 594 (96)
 No 200 (24) 115.6 (16.1) 0 11 (6) 189 (95)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 Underweight (≤18.5) 45 (6) 121.6 (18.0) 0 3 (7) 42 (93)
 Normal (> 18.5 - ≤ 25) 545 (66) 118.4 (15.4) 0 17 (3) 528 (97)
 Overweight (> 25 - ≤30) 177 (22) 113.3 (15.1) 2 (1) 7 (4) 168 (95)
 Obese (> 30) 54 (7) 112.1 (17.8) 0 9 (17) 45 (83)
Fat-free mass (kg)
 1st tertile (≤37) 124 (15) 115.1 (16.3) 0 8 (7) 116 (94)
 2nd tertile (> 37 - < 45) 354 (43) 116.9 (16.9) 2 (1) 18 (5) 334 (94)
 3rd tertile (≥45) 343 (42) 117.9 (14.9) 0 10 (3) 333 (97)
HIV status
 Positive 3 (0.4) 114.3 (15.1) 0 0 3 (100)
 Negative 595 (73) 116.8 (15.1) 1 (0.2) 24 (4) 570 (96)
 Unknown 223 (27) 118.0 (18.1) 1 (0.4) 12 (5) 210 (94)
  1. apercentage in columns
  2. bpercentage in rows
  3. cExchange rate (MK to USD) 0.001 at time of questionnaire
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