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Table 3 Associations between sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (fully adjusted) after removal of those with hypertension, diabetes and proteinuria, Area 25 (n = 243) and Bonje (n = 578)

From: Prevalence and risk factors for chronic kidney disease of unknown cause in Malawi: a cross-sectional analysis in a rural and urban population

Variable Bonje Bonje Area 25
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
eGFR eGFR < 90 eGFR
Coefficient (95%CI); Coefficient (95%CI)a; Coefficient (95%CI)a;
Age
 Per 10-year increase −9.00 (−9.79, −8.22) 3.09 (2.12, 4.59) − 8.14 (− 10.61, −6.23)
Sex
 Male −0.10 (−2.45, 2.23) 1.55 (0.37, 8.28) − 1.62 (− 5.29, 2.05)
 Female Ref Ref Ref
Education (years)
 ≤ 5 4.19 (0.39, 7.99) 0.92 (0.17, 4.58) 5.59 (−2.63, 13.82)
 > 5 ≤ 10 1.65 (−0.38, 3.69) 1.04 (0.33, 3.40) −0.62 (−5.49, 4.24)
 > 10 Ref Ref Ref
Occupation
 Agricultural worker −1.04 (−3.14, 1.04) 0.45 (0.17, 1.27) 0.99 (−13.76, 15.75)
 Non-agricultural worker Ref Ref Ref
Household monthly income (MK)b
 Unknown −4.46 (−11.76, 2.82) 3.18 (0.11, 37.04) −0.83 (− 11.10, 9.43)
 MK 0 ≤ 20,000 Ref Ref Ref
 MK > 20,000 0.35 (−1.67, 2.37) 1.02 (0.37, 2.73) −1.73 (−6.45, 2.98)
BMI (kg/m2)
 5 kg/m2 increase −0.62 (−1.97, 0.73) 1.89 (1.06, 3.81) −1.58 (−3.54, 0.36)
Fat Free Mass (kg)
 (Per 5 kg increase) −0.01 (− 0.07, 0.04) 0.92 (0.58, 1.01) − 0.02 (− 0.11, 0.06)
Healthy lifestyle choices
 Non-smoker or alcohol drinker −1.40 (−3.95, 1.13) 1.52 (0.43, 5.87) −1.84 (−5.83, 2.14)
 Smoker and alcohol drinker Ref Ref Ref
Regular meat-eater
 Yes −0.10 (−1.77, 2.77) 1.05 (0.41, 2.93) −1.95 (−7.38, 3.46)
 No Ref Ref Ref
  1. Hypertension = systolic bp ≥140 mmHg, or diastolic bp ≥90 mmHg; Diabetes = fasting glucose > = 7 mg/l; Proteinuria = ACR > =30 mg/mmol
  2. aAll variables mutually adjusted
  3. bExchange rate (MK to USD) 0.001 at time of questionnaire