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Table 1 Clinical and ultrasound characteristics of the patients

From: Ultrasound to address medullary sponge kidney: a retrospective study

Characteristic Value (n = 18)
Men/Women (n/n) 4/14
Age –mean y (range) 50 (28–82)
Family history –no. (%) 10 (56)
Prognosis-no.(%)
 Normal kidney function 5 (28)
 CKD 13 (72)
 Hemodialysis 2 (11)
 Kidney transplant 3 (17)
Clinical signs and symptoms-no. (%)
 Microhematuria 9 (50)
 Proteinuria 8 (44)
 Urinary tract infection 6 (33)
 Renal colic 6 (33)
 Asymptomatic 2 (11)
 Not available 1 (5.5)
Imaging study-no. (%)
 Intravenous urography 0 (0)
 CT 7 (39)
 Ultrasound 18 (100)
Renal cysts characteristics at ultrasound
 Unilateral/bilateral (n/n) 2/15
 Not described (n) 1
 Medullary (n) 6
 Cortical (n) 1
 Cortical and medullary (n) 5
 Parenchymal (n) 3
 Not described (n) 3
 Diameter of medullary cysts (mm) From 1 mm to 30 mm
 Diameter of cortical cysts (mm) From 25 mm to 65 mm
 Renal calcifications or renal stones-no. (%) 16 (89)
Indication for ultrasound-no. (%)
 Follow up of CKD 8 (44)
 Follow up of MSK or renal stones 7 (39)
 Family history of renal disease 3 (17)
Relevant comorbidities (n)
 Diabetes 3
 Nephrectomy 1
 Hypertension 1
  1. CKD Chronic kidney disease, CT Computed tomography, MSK Medullary sponge kidney, y Years