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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Limited english proficiency and concordance of CKD awareness among primary care providers and patients

Characteristics All (n = 152) English proficient (n = 103) Limited English Proficient (n = 49) p-value
Mean Age, years (SD) 57.4 (13.6) 57.9 (11.9) 56.5 (16.8) 0.56
Male, % (N) 48.7 (74) 54.4 (56) 36.7 (18) 0.04
Race/Ethnicity, % (N)     < 0.01
 Non-Hispanic White 9.2 (14) 13.6 (14) 0
 Hispanic 37.5 (57) 9.7 (10) 95.9 (47)
 Black 44.1 (67) 65.0 (67) 0
 Asian 7.9 (12) 9.7 (10) 4.1 (2)
 Other 1.3 (2) 1.9 (2) 0
Language, % (N)     < 0.01
 English 67.8 (103) 103 (100) 0
 Spanish 30.9 (47) 0 95.9 (47)
 Cantonese 0.6 (1) 0 2.0 (1)
 Other 0.6 (1) 0 2.0 (1)
Provider-Patient Language Concordance, % (N) 76.3 (116) 100 (103) 26.5 (13) 0.04
Adequate Health Literacy, % (N) 69.3 (104) 71.6 (73) 64.6 (31) 0.39
Educational Attainment, % (N)     < 0.01
 Primary School 15.1 (23) 2.9 (3) 40.8 (20)
 High School/Vocational School 46.7 (71) 49.5 (51) 40.8 (20)
 College 38.2 (58) 47.6 (49) 18.4 (9)
Health Insurance, % (N)     < 0.01
 None 20.9 (30) 10.4 (10) 42.6 (20)
 Medicaid 55.9 (80) 65.6 (63) 36.2 (17)
 Medicare 23.1 (33) 23.9 (23) 20.4 (10)
Hypertension, % (N) 90.1 (136) 93.1 (95) 83.7 (41) 0.07
Mean Systolic BP, (SD) 134.7 (22.2) 137.5 (21.9) 128.8 (21.6) 0.03
Mean Diastolic BP, (SD) 78.9 (12.4) 81.2 (13.2) 74.0 (8.6) < 0.01
Mean eGFR (SD) 66.1 (32.8) 62.6 (29.1) 73.3 (38.8) 0.06
CKD stage, % (N)     0.24
 Stage 1–2 36.2 (55) 33.0 (34) 42.9 (21)
 Stage 3–4 63.8 (97) 66.9 (69) 57.1 (28)
Proteinuria, % (N) 77.5 (107) 78.9 (71) 75.0 (36) 0.6
Diabetes, % (N) 77.6 (118) 79.61 (82) 73.47 (36) 0.4
Mean Cholesterol (LDL) Mg/dL, (SD) 83.0 (46.0) 82.0 (43.6) 85.1 (50.9) 0.7
  1. n = 152 for all rows except SBP (n = 148), DBP (n = 148), Insurance (n-143), Cholesterol (n = 130)
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