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Table 1 Literature review with regard to therapeutic strategy and outcome of glomerulonephritis in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome

From: Glomerulonephritis with severe nephrotic syndrome induced by immune complexes composed of galactose-deficient IgA1 in primary Sjögren’s syndrome: a case report

Reference No. Characteristics at the diagnosis of GN Treatment Duration until outcome Outcome Comments
age SS duration (years) Serum Cr (mg/dL) Urinary analysis Histological findings Cryoglobulin Lymphoma
[10] 64 11 1.4 proteinuria, hematuria MPGN N/A - mPSL pulse + IVCY > 6 months remission  
50 12 0.9 proteinuria, hematuria MSGN N/A - mPSL pulse + IVCY > 6 months remission  
60 8 4.9 proteinuria, hematuria MPGN N/A - mPSL pulse + IVCY > 6 months ESRD  
50 18 0.8 proteinuria, hematuria MPGN N/A - mPSL pulse + IVCY > 6 months remission  
66 28 1 proteinuria MSGN N/A - mPSL pulse + AZA or CsA N/A remission  
44 5 1.1 proteinuria, hematuria, RBC cast MSGN N/A - moderate to high dose PSL N/A amelioration very good clinical and laboratory response
68 15 1.5 proteinuria MSGN N/A - moderate to high dose PSL N/A amelioration very good clinical and laboratory response
53 17 6.2 proteinuria, hematuria, RBC cast GN, IN N/A - mPSL pulse + IVCY > 6 months ESRD  
74 27 1.6 proteinuria MPGN, IN N/A - no treatment 13 years death developed lymphoma
53 10 1.1 proteinuria, hematuria MSGN N/A - RTX N/A remission  
75 15 0.9 proteinuria, hematuria MPGN N/A - mPSL pulse + IVCY > 6 months remission  
38 11 0.7 proteinuria, hematuria MPGN N/A - mPSL pulse + IVCY < 2 months remission  
42 7 1 proteinuria, hematuria MPGN N/A - moderate to high dose PSL <1 years amelioration very good clinical and laboratory response
39 10 1.5 proteinuria MPGN N/A - mPSL pulse + IVCY < 2 months remission  
25 4 0.8 proteinuria MPGN N/A - moderate to high dose PSL N/A amelioration very good clinical and laboratory response
42 12 1 proteinuria, hematuria MPGN N/A + R-CHOP <1 years stable  
75 31 0.8 hematuria MSGN, IN N/A - no treatment 23 years N/A  
55 14 1.2 proteinuria, hematuria MSGN, IN N/A + chemotherapy without RTX N/A amelioration  
43 15 1.5 normal finding proliferative GN, IN N/A - mPSL pulse + IVCY <1 years remission  
59 8 0.9 hematuria MN N/A - moderate to high dose PSL N/A amelioration  
65 8 0.9 proteinuria MN N/A - mPSL pulse + AZA or CsA N/A remission  
[11] N/A 7 2 proteinuria, hematuria MPGN, IN + - moderate dose PSL + HCQ 24 months detelioration  
moderate dose PSL + RTX 5 months amelioration
N/A 0 1.6 proteinuria, hematuria Fibrially GN - - high dose PSL 2.5 months detelioration  
moderate dose PSL + RTX 5 months detelioration
N/A 20 0.8 normal finding MPGN + - moderate dose PSL + MMF 10 months stable complication of vasculatic ulcers
high dose PSL + oral CY 3 months stable
moderate dose PSL + MMF 3 months remission
N/A 11 0.9 proteinuria, hematuria MPGN + - low dose PSL + HCQ + colchicine 4 years stable  
high dose PSL + MMF 12.5 months detelioration
moderate dose PSL + RTX 6 months remission
[12] 58 N/A 3.5 proteinuria MPGN, IN + - PSL <1 months amelioration  
47 N/A 1.4 proteinuria, hematuria MPGN, IN + - PSL + HCQ, RTX added 12 years after 12 years amelioration developed lymphoma 12 years after diagnosis of GN
  1. N/A no available, GN glomerulonephritis, MP membranoproliferative, MS mesangial, IN interstitial nephritis, SS Sjögren’s syndrome, Cr creatinine, ESRD end stage renal disease, mPSL methyl-prednisolone, IVCY intravenous cyclophosphamide, MMF mycophenolate mofetil, RTX rituximab, AZA azathioprine, CS cyclosporine, HCQ hydroxychloroquine, RCHOP rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin hydrochloride, vincristine and prednisolone