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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics and CVRFs for study participants according to the state of renal function, TAHES study, Benin 2019

From: Prevalence of abnormal kidney function in a rural population of Benin and associated risk factors

  Abnormal kidney function (n = 219) Normal kidney function (n = 1141) p-value*
Median [Q1-Q3] / n (%) Median [Q1-Q3] / n (%)
Age (years) 52 [38–66] 39 [31–50] <  0.001
Age (≥ 60 years) 76 (34.7) 157 (13.8) <  0.001
Gender
 Male 52 (23.7) 443 (38.8) <  0.001
Education levels
 Illiterate 158 (72.1) 715 (62.7) 0.025
 Primary level 52 (23.7) 353 (30.9)
 Above primary level 9 (4.1) 73 (6.4)
Marital status
 In couple 153 (69.9) 980 (85.9) <  0.001
 Single, widowed or divorced 66 (30.1) 161 (14.1)
Occupation
 Independent farmer or informala 179 (81.7) 951 (83.3) 0.006
 Private or formal employee 20 (9.1) 141 (12.4)
 Unemployedb 20 (9.1) 49 (4.3)
Monthly income ($US)
  < 68 95 (43.4) 461 (40.4) 0.245
 68–179 90 (41.1) 447 (39.2)
  ≥ 180 34 (15.5) 233 (20.4)
HBP 104 (47.5) 340 (29.8) <  0.001
High BMIc 82 (37.4) 325 (28.5) 0.010
Hyperglycemiad / Diabetes Treatmente 26 (11.9) 51 (4.5) <  0.001
  1. * p value of the chi-squared test for qualitative variables and Student’s test for quantitative variables
  2. aIndependent farmer or informal (reseller, craftsman, motorcycle taxi, small independent with or without the Trade Register, laborer)
  3. bUnemployed (student, apprentice, pensioner other)
  4. cHigh BMI (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2)
  5. dHyperglycemia capillary blood glucose ≥6.1 mmol / L
  6. en = 1140 for the normal kidney function group