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Table 2 Hospital Complications by AKI Stages for Patients Admitted with SARS-CoV2 Infection

From: SARS-CoV-2 infection increases risk of acute kidney injury in a bimodal age distribution

  Total No AKI AKI-1 AKI − 2 AKI-3 (no RRT) AKI-RRT
6874 4138 (60.2) 1733 (25.2) 382 (5.6) 517 (7.5) 104 (1.5)
Age Categories
  < 20 years 621 (9) 450 (11) 103 (6) 23 (6) 44 (9) 1 (1)
 20 to < 40 years 772 (11) 614 (15) 116 (7) 10 (3) 25 (5) 7 (7)
 40 to < 60 years 2038 (30) 1351 (33) 467 (27) 73 (19) 110 (21) 37 (36)
 60 to < 80 years 2647 (39) 1369 (33) 773 (45) 191 (50) 259 (50) 55 (53)
  ≥ 80 years 796 (12) 354 (9) 274 (16) 85 (22) 79 (15) 4 (4)
Admitted to ICU
 Yes 4075 (59) 2136 (52) 1116 (64) 282 (74) 437 (85) 104 (100)
 Noa 2799 (41) 2002 (48) 617 (36) 100 (26) 80 (16) 0 (0)
Hospitalization length of stay (days), median (IQR)b 7 (4, 13) 6 (4, 11) 9 (5, 17) 11 (6, 22) 13 (7, 23) 31 (22, 48)
ICU length of stay (days), median (IQR)b 5 (2, 11) 4 (2, 9) 6 (2, 13) 8 (2, 18) 6.5 (2.5, 16) 22 (11, 38)
Intubation 1899 (28) 720 (17.4) 596 (34) 185 (48) 298 (58) 100 (96)
Discharged on Oxygen 594 (9) 334 (8) 186 (11) 28 (7) 35 (7) 10 (10)
Vasopressors/ Inotropes 1203 (18) 380 (9) 374 (22) 134 (35) 222 (43) 93 (89)
ECMO 78 (1) 24 (0.6) 32 (2) 10 (3) 10 (2) 2 (2)
Thrombosesc 337 (5) 140 (3) 112 (7) 22 (6) 40 (8) 23 (22)
Mortality 1314 (19.1) 434 (10.5) 399 (23.0) 157 (41.1) 255 (49.3) 69 (66.4)
RD of Mortality (95% CI)   Reference 12.5% (10.3–14.7) 30.6% (25.6–35.6) 38.8% (34.4–43.2) 55.9% (46.7–65.0)
OR of Mortality (95% CI)   Reference 2.6 (2.2–3.0) 6.0 (4.7–7.5) 8.3 (6.8–10.1) 16.8 (11.1–25.6)
  1. Data presented as number (percentiles), except where specified. AKI Acute kidney injury, AKI-1 AKI stage 1, AKI-2 AKI stage 2, AKI-3 AKI stage 3, CI Confidence intervals, ECMO Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ICU Intensive care unit, OR Odds ratio, RRT Renal replacement therapy
  2. aOf those never admitted to the ICU, n = 139 died (5.0%) and n = 30 (1.1%) discharged to hospice care
  3. bLength of stay only among survivors (n = 5560). Hospital length of stay missing for 91 patients. Intensive care unit length of stay among only those who were ever admitted to ICU and survived (n = 2900). ICU length of stay missing for 81 patients
  4. cDefined by pre-selected categories of stroke, cerebrovascular accident, deep vein thromboses, and free text entry of the same plus thrombosis, clot, and pulmonary embolism