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Table 1 Characteristics of patient, medication, and procedure-related factors in patients with and without AKI after abdominal surgery

From: Risk factors for acute kidney injury after major abdominal surgery in the elderly aged 75 years and above

Factors All patients
(n = 573)
AKI
(n = 33; 5.76%)
non-AKI
(n = 540; 94.24%)
P
Preoperative clinical characteristics
 Male, n(%) 297(51.83%) 11 (33.33%) 286 (52.96%) 0.032
 Age ± SD, years 81.30 ± 4.433 83.12 ± 4.574 80.66 ± 4.109 0.001
 Body mass index ± SD(kg/m2) 23.50 ± 3.608 23.13 ± 3.806 23.53 ± 3.601 0.537
 Hypertension, n(%) 359(62.65%) 19 (57.58%) 340 (62.96%) 0.535
 Diabetes mellitus, n(%) 131(22.86%) 9 (27.27%) 122 (22.59%) 0.535
 Ischemic heart diseases, n(%) 128(22.34%) 8 (24.24%) 120 (22.22%) 0.787
 Congestive heart failure, n(%) 20(3.49%) 2 (6.06%) 18 (3.33%) 0.734
 Cerebrovascular diseases, n(%) 98(17.10%) 5 (15.15%) 93 (17.22%) 0.759
 COPD, n(%) 12(2.09%) 2 (6.06%) 10 (1.85%) 0.311
 Solid malignancy, n(%) 234(40.84%) 11 (33.33%) 223 (41.30%) 0.366
 Hematological malignancy, n(%) 2(0.35%) 0 2 (0.37%) 1.000
Preoperative laboratory test
 Serum hemoglobin (g/L) 119.59 ± 18.549 115.44 ± 21.437 119.84 ± 18.372 0.193
 Serum albumin (g/L) 35.32 ± 4.707 32.12 ± 4.742 35.51 ± 4.643  < 0.001
 Alanine aminotransferase (u/L) 39.07 ± 75.260 73.45 ± 86.665 36.95 ± 74.142 0.024
 Aspartate aminotransferase(u/L) 44.75 ± 86.239 83.45 ± 106.515 42.36 ± 84.451 0.037
 Baseline eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 70.66 ± 26.686 63.69 ± 23.753 95.47 ± 381.386 0.633
 Baseline eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) < 60 76(13.26%) 15(45.45%) 61(11.30%)  < 0.001
 ASA score 2.89 ± .522 3.18 ± 0.635 2.87 ± 0.510 0.001
 ASA score > 3, n(%) 45(7.85%) 8(24.24%) 37(6.85%)  < 0.001
 Charlson score 6.31 ± .023 7.15 ± 2.694 6.26 ± 1.969 0.071
 Charlson score > 7, n(%) 222(38.74%) 15 (45.45%) 207 (38.33%) 0.415
 RCRI score 0.53 ± 0.672 0.85 ± 0.755 0.51 ± 0.663 0.005
 Non-renal RCRI score 0.52 ± 0.665 0.76 ± 0.751 0.50 ± 0.657 0.033
Surgical approach     0.213
 Laparoscopic, n(%) 139(24.26%) 11 (7.91%) 128 (92.09%)  
 Laparotomy, n(%) 434(75.74%) 22 (5.07%) 412 (94.93%)  
Operative site     0.817
 Colorectal, n(%) 151(26.35%) 8 (24.24%) 143 (26.48%)  
 Gastric, n(%) 30(5.24%) 3 (9.09%) 27 (5%)  
 Hepato-biliary-pancreatic, n(%) 274(47.82%) 15 (45.45%) 259 (47.96%)  
 Small bowel, n(%) 118(20.59%) 7 (21.21%) 111 (20.56%)  
Intraoperative characteristics
 Duration of anesthesia (min) 200.28 ± 113.031 202.97 ± 81.471 200.12 ± 114.836 0.850
 Operative time (min) 142.94 ± 100.231 141.52 ± 77.704 143.03 ± 101.594 0.933
 IOH, n(%) 116(20.24%) 16 (48.48%) 100 (18.52%)  < 0.001
 Amount of crystalloids use (L) 337.70 ± 340.428 378.79 ± 395.883 335.19 ± 337.324 0.476
 Blood loss (mL) 68.52 ± 162.091 48.45 ± 5.242 69.74 ± 166.503 0.465
 Vasoactive drug use, n(%) 472(82.37%) 26 (78.79%) 446 (82.59%) 0.578
 Usage of nephrotoxic drugs
  Hydroxyethyl starch, n(%) 210(36.65%) 5 (15.15%) 205 (37.96%) 0.008
  NSAID, n(%) 75(13.09%) 2 (6.06%) 73 (13.52%) 0.333
  Hydroxyethyl starch + NSAID, n(%) 101(17.63%) 12 (36.36%) 89 (16.48%) 0.004
  Hydroxyethyl starch + furosemide, n(%) 13(2.27%) 5 (15.15%) 8 (1.48%)  < 0.001
  1. AKI acute kidney injury, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, RCRI Revised Cardiac Risk Index, IOH intraoperative occurrence of hypotension, NSAIDs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  2. Data were presented as median (interquartile range) for continuous variables or number(percentage) for categorical variables