The prevalence of patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) who need dialysis and/or transplantation has more than doubled in Thailand during the past two decades. It has been suggested that therapeutic strategies to reduce the risk of ESRD and other complications in CKD are now available, thus the early recognition and the institution of proven therapeutic strategies are important and beneficial. We, therefore, aimed to determine the prevalence of CKD in Thai adults from the National Health Examination Survey of 2004.
Data from a nationally representative sample of 3,117 individuals aged 15 years and older was collected using questionnaires, physical examination and blood samples. Serum creatinine was measured by Jaffé method. GFR was estimated using the Chinese modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation. Chronic kidney Disease (CKD) stages were classified based on Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (K/DOQI).
The prevalence of CKD in Thai adults weighted to the 2004 Thai population by stage was 8.1% for stage 3, 0.2% and 0.15% for stage 4 and 5 respectively. Compared to non-CKD, individuals with CKD were older, had a higher level of cholesterol, and higher blood pressure. Those with cardiovascular risk factors were more likely to have CKD (stage 3-5) than those without, including hypertension (OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.1, 3.4), diabetes (OR 1.87, 95%CI 1.0, 3.4). CKD was more common in northeast (OR 2.1, 95%CI 1.3, 3.3) compared to central region. Urinalysis was not performed, therefore, we could not have data on CKD stage 1 and 2. We have no specific GFR formula for Thai population.
The identification of CKD patients should be evaluated and monitored for appropriate intervention for progression to kidney disease from this screening.