- Open Access
Urbanization and kidney function decline in low and middle income countries
BMC Nephrology volume 18, Article number: 276 (2017)
Urbanization is expected to increase in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), and might contribute to the increased disease burden. The association between urbanization and CKD is incompletely understood among LMICs. Recently, Inoue et al., explored the association of urbanization on renal function from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. The study found that individuals living in an urban environment had a higher odds of reduced renal function independent of behavioral and cardiometabolic measures, and this effect increased in a dose dependent manner. In this commentary, we discuss the results of these findings and explain the need for more surveillance studies among LMICs.
The cities of the developing world are spectacularly ill-prepared for the explosion in urban living – Hans van Ginkel . For the first time in human history, more than half of the world’s population resides in urban areas, a proportion that is expected to increase to 66% in the next three decades . The United Nations estimated that the urban population will further increase from 3.3 to 4.9 billion worldwide by 2030 . Various studies in low and middle income countries (LMICs) have found that rapid and unplanned urbanization may lead to higher prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia [3, 4]. This upsurge in metabolic diseases parallels the rise in prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). According to the available evidence, approximately 500 million people are estimated to have CKD, with the majority (>80%) living in LMICs, but these estimates belie the true burden of the disease . Correspondingly, the age-standardized mortality rate owing to CKD increased by 37% over two decades (Year:1990: 11.6 deaths per 100,000 population; Year: 2013: 15.8 deaths per 100,000 population), making CKD the 19th leading global cause of years of life lost in 2013 . However, the data on CKD epidemiology remains incompletely understood, due to availability of few surveillance data, poor standardization of creatinine and albuminuria measurements, and inconsistent methods for ascertaining kidney function. Based on the available evidence from LMICs, there is substantial heterogeneity in the prevalence of CKD among urban versus rural areas (Table 1).
Unlike western countries, the etiology of CKD in LMICs are multifactorial and affected by the double burden of both non-communicable and communicable diseases. Table 2 describes some of the etiological factors associated with CKD among LMICs. Adverse lifestyle changes, including increased sedentary habits , lack of sleep , dietary sodas , high intake of calorie and sodium-rich diets [10, 11], food insecurity and poverty , and increased availability of processed foods  results in increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Accordingly, about half of all deaths in Asia are now attributable to non-communicable diseases, accounting for 47% of global burden . Conversely, a preponderance of infectious diseases not typically seen in high income countries, such as schistosomiasis, HIV, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and C, further aggravates the CKD burden in LMICs . Furthermore, rapid and unplanned urbanization may result in decreased food availability for socially disadvantaged people, lack of infrastructure, poor sanitation, waste disposal and heavy environmental toxins . Inadequate health care resources, coupled with increased prevalence of other communicable and NCDs, further exacerbate the burden . Genetic predisposition , malnutrition  and intrauterine fetal exposures  also play an important role in CKD susceptibility.
In this issue of the journal, Inoue et al. , studied the effect of urbanization on renal function from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 9493). Rather than relying on a conventional urban-rural dichotomous measure, the authors utilized a validated, study specific, 12-component composite index to measure urbanization. The study showed that individuals living in an urban environment had higher odds of reduced glomerular filtration rate, independent of behavioral and cardiometabolic measures. Of particular note, the effect of urbanization on renal function decline was dose-dependent, where mean eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) declined from 84.8 in the lowest urbanization quartile to 82.8, 80.9, and then 77.8 in the highest urbanization quartile. In multivariable, multilevel models, the impact of a 1 standard deviation increase in urbanization was associated with reduced renal function among both males and females (males: adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.25 [95% CI: 0.98–1.59]; P = 0.078; females: aOR: 1.24 [95% CI: 1.01–1.52]; P = 0.041). Despite lack of statistical significance among males, the effect sizes were similar. In addition, among the different components of the urbanization index, the authors found a significant association between housing component and renal function (males: OR: 1.51 [95% CI: 1.01–2.28] and females: OR: 1.39 [95% CI: 1.01–1.93]). While the mechanism for how increased urbanization can lead to lower renal function is not possible to explore in this cross-sectional study, results suggest that community-level factors may play an important role in the development of CKD and should be further explored.
Addressing NCDs is an urgent global priority, and cities are the epicenters where action is needed most. Compared with rural areas, the rapid urbanization and lifestyle changes in cities offers better understanding of the etiology of the CKD diseases. Despite a probable heavy burden of end-stage kidney disease in LMICs, relatively few patients receive renal replacement therapy. A 2015 systematic review suggests that approximately 83% of renal failure patients in Asia are not receiving the renal replacement treatment . A recent Cochrane review which included 17 studies involving 1639 people with CKD showed that different modalities of dietary interventions were associated with improved kidney function and hemodynamic measures . However, none of the studies were reported from LMICs. Innovation, technology, and the ongoing economic transition in cities may also help to catalyze new initiatives to prevent CKD burden in this countries. Future studies should focus on the following themes:
Better surveillance studies are urgently needed to ascertain the real burden of CKD prevalence among LMICs
Because the presentation of CKD is heterogeneous among LMICs, a better understanding of the epidemiology is urgently needed. Non-conventional risk factors such as heavy metals, environmental toxins, sleep insufficiency and stress should be explored as factors mediating urbanization and CKD; and
The available CKD nutritional intervention studies are posited based on evidence from homogoenous populations in higher income countries and therefore, more studies are needed to test the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions among LMICs. The studies should particularly focused on testing culturally tailored and novel dietary intervention tools.
To conclude, CKD is an important global health challenge especially in LMICs. National and international efforts are urgently needed on the prevention, detection and treatment to mitigate the rising burden worldwide. Furthermore, a better understanding of epidemiology coupled with strong public advocacy, and collaborative public health interventions that address conventional and unconventional risk factors of CKD are needed. Future studies should focus on the unique features of LMICs to ascertain those at greatest risk of CKD, across all socioeconomic groups to ensure early screening.
Chronic kidney disease
Estimated glomerular filtration rate
Low-Middle income countries
van Ginkel H. Urban future. Nature. 2008;456(n1s):32–3.
Allender S, Wickramasinghe K, Goldacre M, Matthews D, Katulanda P. Quantifying urbanization as a risk factor for noncommunicable disease. Journal of urban health. 2011;88(5):906–18.
Oyebode O, Pape UJ, Laverty AA, Lee JT, Bhan N, Millett C. Rural, urban and migrant differences in non-communicable disease risk-factors in middle income countries: a cross-sectional study of WHO-SAGE data. PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0122747.
Stanifer JW, Muiru A, Jafar TH, Patel UD. Chronic kidney disease in low-and middle-income countries. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 2016;31(6):868–74.
Rhee CM, Kovesdy CP. Epidemiology: spotlight on CKD deaths [mdash] increasing mortality worldwide. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2015;11(4):199–200.
Beddhu S, Baird BC, Zitterkoph J, Neilson J, Greene T. Physical activity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (NHANES III). Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;4(12):1901–6.
Yayan J, Rasche K, Vlachou A. Obstructive sleep apnea and chronic kidney disease. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017.
Saldana TM, Basso O, Darden R, Sandler DP. Carbonated beverages and chronic kidney disease. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass). 2007;18(4):501.
Aburto NJ, Ziolkovska A, Hooper L, Elliott P, Cappuccio FP, Meerpohl JJ. Effect of lower sodium intake on health: systematic review and meta-analyses. BMJ. 2013;346:f1326.
Smyth A, O'Donnell MJ, Yusuf S, Clase CM, Teo KK, Canavan M, Reddan DN, Mann JF. Sodium intake and renal outcomes: a systematic review. Am J Hypertens. 2014;27(10):1277–84.
Crews DC, Kuczmarski MF, Grubbs V, Hedgeman E, Shahinian VB, Evans MK, Zonderman AB, Burrows NR, Williams DE, Saran R. Effect of food insecurity on chronic kidney disease in lower-income Americans. Am J Nephrol. 2014;39(1):27–35.
Uribarri J: Phosphorus homeostasis in normal health and in chronic kidney disease patients with special emphasis on dietary phosphorus intake.Semin Dial: 2006; 2006: 295-301.
Organization WH: Global action plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases 2013–2020. 2013.
Jha V, Prasad N. CKD and infectious diseases in asia pacific: challenges and opportunities. Am J Kidney Dis. 2016;68(1):148–60.
Soderland P, Lovekar S, Weiner DE, Brooks DR, Kaufman JS. Chronic kidney disease associated with environmental toxins and exposures. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2010;17(3):254–64.
Boutayeb A, Boutayeb S. The burden of non communicable diseases in developing countries. Int J Equity Health. 2005;4(1):2.
Eikmans M, Aben JA, Koop K, Baelde HJ, de Heer E, Bruijn JA. Genetic factors in progressive renal disease: the good ones, the bad ones and the ugly ducklings. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 2006;21(2):257–60.
Wood-Bradley RJ, Barrand S, Giot A, Armitage JA. Understanding the role of maternal diet on kidney development; an opportunity to improve cardiovascular and renal health for future generations. Nutrients. 2015;7(3):1881–905.
Nelson RG. Intrauterine determinants of diabetic kidney disease in disadvantaged populations. Kidney Int. 2003;63:S13–6.
Inoue Y, Howard AG, Thompson AL, Mendez MA, Herring AH, Gordon-Larsen P. The association between urbanization and reduced renal function: findings from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. BMC Nephrol. 2017;18(1):160.
Dare AJ, Fu SH, Patra J, Rodriguez PS, Thakur J, Jha P, Collaborators MDS. Renal failure deaths and their risk factors in India 2001–13: nationally representative estimates from the Million Death Study. Lancet Glob Health. 2017;5(1):e89–95.
Palmer SC, Maggo JK, Campbell KL, Craig JC, Johnson DW, Sutanto B, Ruospo M, Tong A, Strippoli GF. Dietary interventions for adults with chronic kidney disease. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2017;4:Cd011998.
Kaze FF, Halle MP, Mopa HT, Ashuntantang G, Fouda H, Ngogang J, Kengne AP. Prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease in urban adult Cameroonians according to three common estimators of the glomerular filtration rate: a cross-sectional study. BMC Nephrol. 2015;16:96.
Kaze FF, Meto DT, Halle M-P, Ngogang J, Kengne A-P. Prevalence and determinants of chronic kidney disease in rural and urban Cameroonians: a cross-sectional study. BMC Nephrol. 2015;16(1):117.
Stanifer JW, Maro V, Egger J, Karia F, Thielman N, Turner EL, Shimbi D, Kilaweh H, Matemu O, Patel UD. The epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in Northern Tanzania: a population-based survey. PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0124506.
Ong-Ajyooth L, Vareesangthip K, Khonputsa P, Aekplakorn W. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Thai adults: a national health survey. BMC Nephrol. 2009;10:35.
Ingsathit A, Thakkinstian A, Chaiprasert A, Sangthawan P, Gojaseni P, Kiattisunthorn K, Ongaiyooth L, Vanavanan S, Sirivongs D, Thirakhupt P. Prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease in the Thai adult population: Thai SEEK study. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 2010;25(5):1567–75.
Perkovic V, Cass A, Patel A, Suriyawongpaisal P, Barzi F, Chadban S, Macmahon S, Neal B, Group IC. High prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Thailand. Kidney Int. 2008;73(4):473–9.
Sahin I, Yildirim B, Cetin I, Etikan I, Ozturk B, Ozyurt H, Tasliyurt T. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the Black Sea Region, Turkey, and investigation of the related factors with chronic kidney disease. Ren Fail. 2009;31(10):920–7.
Singh AK, Farag YM, Mittal BV, Subramanian KK, Reddy SRK, Acharya VN, Almeida AF, Channakeshavamurthy A, Ballal HS, P G, et al. Epidemiology and risk factors of chronic kidney disease in India – results from the SEEK (Screening and Early Evaluation of Kidney Disease) study. BMC Nephrol. 2013;14(1):114.
Trivedi H, Vanikar A, Patel H, Kanodia K, Kute V, Nigam L, Suthar K, Thakkar U, Sutariya H, Gandhi S. High prevalence of chronic kidney disease in a semi-urban population of Western India. Clin Kidney J. 2016;9(3):438–43.
Chen J, Wildman RP, Gu D, Kusek JW, Spruill M, Reynolds K, Liu D, Hamm LL, Whelton PK, He J. Prevalence of decreased kidney function in Chinese adults aged 35 to 74 years. Kidney Int. 2005;68(6):2837–45.
Chen W, Chen W, Wang H, Dong X, Liu Q, Mao H, Tan J, Lin J, Zhou F, Luo N, et al. Prevalence and risk factors associated with chronic kidney disease in an adult population from southern China. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;24(4):1205–12.
Jiang L, Liang Y, Qiu B, Wang F, Duan X, Yang X, Huang W, Wang N. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in a rural Chinese adult population: the Handan Eye Study. Nephron Clin Pract. 2010;114(4):c295–302.
Zhang L, Zhang P, Wang F, Zuo L, Zhou Y, Shi Y, Li G, Jiao S, Liu Z, Liang W, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with CKD: a population study from Beijing. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008;51(3):373–84.
Zhang L, Wang F, Wang L, Wang W, Liu B, Liu J, Chen M, He Q, Liao Y, Yu X, et al. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in China: a cross-sectional survey. Lancet. 2012;379(9818):815–22.
Sheng T, Xiao-mei P, Chao-qing W, Wen-xin Z, Hao-yu W, Min B, Yun-fang L, Jin-yu L, Ling H. Zhi-feng. G: Comparison of epidemiological situation in chronic kidney disease between urban and rural areas in Guangxi province. Chinese Journal of Nephrology. 2011;27(12):890–5.
Availability of data and materials
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Consent for publication
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Jagannathan, R., Patzer, R.E. Urbanization and kidney function decline in low and middle income countries. BMC Nephrol 18, 276 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12882-017-0685-4
- Chronic kidney disease
- Low-Middle income countries